Behavior Data Systems
Assessment Tests and Interviews Reliable Computer Graded Assessment


1st Offense Inventory

Non-Violent, First Offense Assessment

The 1st Offense Inventory is designed for first offense (male and female) assessment. This test is particularly useful in defendant, presentence, pretrial and probation settings.

The 1st Offense Inventory consists of 122 true/false and multiple choice items. It takes 20 to 25 minutes on average to complete and has a fifth grade reading level. Reports are complete and printed on-site within 2 minutes of data entry. The 1st Offense Inventory has seven scales (measures):

Seven 1st Offense Inventory Scales (Measures)

  1. Truthfulness Scale: measures how truthful the offender was while completing the test. It would be naive to assume that respondents always tell the truth - particularly in court and probation settings. The Truthfulness Scale detects denial, problem minimization and attempts to "fake good."
  2. Alcohol Scale: measures alcohol use and when appropriate the severity of abuse. Alcohol refers to beer, wine and other liquors. This scale measures the severity of alcohol abuse so the assessor can match problem severity with treatment intensity.
  3. Drugs Scale: measures the severity of drug (marijuana, crack, ice, ecstasy, LSD, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates, heroin, etc.) use and when appropriate abuse. The Drugs Scale measures the severity of drug abuse so the assessor can match problem severity with treatment intensity.
  4. Antisocial Scale: measures antisocial attitudes and behaviors. It identifies offenders that are opposed to society and are aggressive, irresponsible and destructive. Antisocial people are opposed to existing social organization and moral codes.
  5. Peer Pressure Scale: measures a person's susceptibility to peer pressure or the influence of others. By definition: pressure from one's peers to behave in a manner similar or acceptable to them.
  6. Entitlement Scale: measures a person's beliefs and entitlement related attitudes. Some people believe they "are entitled," "deserve," or "have a right to" more material goods, benefits or other services. Some people believe they are "entitled" to more than others.
  7. Self-Esteem Scale: measures a person's perception of self. Self-esteem incorporates an attitude of acceptance-approval versus rejection-disapproval of oneself. This scale describes the person one believes oneself to be.

Why use the 1st Offense Inventory? Early detection of problem severity facilitates prompt intervention which contributes greatly to successful recovery. And measuring the severity of problems enables evaluators to match problem severity with treatment intensity. We now know this is a necessary prerequisite for treatment effectiveness.

In 20 to 25 minutes staff can screen important attitudinal, self-awareness and behavioral factors important in understanding first offenders, their risks (problems) and their needs (intervention, counseling or treatment). And each 1st Offense Inventory scale represents important problem areas and contributing factors. As noted above, each scale measures problem severity so it can be appropriately matched with treatment intensity.

Confidentiality: BDS encourages test users to delete offender names from diskettes before they are returned to BDS. Once client names are deleted they are gone and cannot be retrieved. Deleting client names does not delete demographics or test data which is downloaded into the 1st Offense Inventory database for subsequent analysis. This proprietary name deletion procedure involves a few keystrokes and insures client confidentiality and HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501) requirement compliance.

Test Data Input Verification: Allows the staff person that inputs test data from the answer sheet into the computer to verify the accuracy of their data input. In brief, test data is input twice and any inconsistencies between the first and second data entry are highlighted until corrected. When the first and second data entry match or are the same the staff person can continue. This proprietary Data Input Verification procedure is optional, yet strongly recommended by BDS.

Training Manual: The Training Manual explains how the 1st Offense Inventory works. It is a must read for staff that will be using the 1st Offense Inventory. Training Manual content includes, but is not limited to, the following: instructions for testing, explanation of how scores are derived, clarification of how court-related information is used, description of unique 1st Offense Inventory features and much more.

Advantages of Screening: Screening or assessment instruments filter out individuals with serious problems that may require referral for a more comprehensive evaluation and/or treatment. This filtering system works as follows:


Risk Category Risk Range
Low Risk
 0 - 39%
Medium Risk
40 - 69%
Problem Risk
70 - 89%
Severe Problem
90 - 100%

Reference to the above table shows that a problem is not identified until a scale score is at the 70th percentile or higher. This procedure is eminently fair and it avoids extremes, i.e., over or under-identification of problems.

A state, department, court or agency policy might refer clients with severe problems for further evaluation, intervention or treatment. In this case 11% of the people screened (Severe Problem) would be referred. Budgetary savings (dollars) would be large with no compromises in needy people receiving appropriate evaluation and/or treatment services. Indeed, more needy people would receive help. Without a screening program there is usually more risk of over or under utilization of additional professional services.

Selecting an offender test: If you are selecting an offender assessment instrument, the following Comparison Checklist should prove helpful. It lists important screening test qualities. The "Other" column represents any other test you might want to compare to the 1st Offense Inventory.

Designed Specifically for 1st Offense Evaluation
Test Completed in 20 Minutes
On-Site Reports Within 2 Minutes
Truthfulness Scale to Detect Faking
Truth-Corrected Scores for Accuracy
Three Test Administration Options
1. Paper-Pencil (English and Spanish)
2. On Computer Screen (English and Spanish)
3. Human Voice Audio (English and Spanish)
Delete Client Names (insures confidentiality)
HIPAA Regulation Compliant
ASAM Compatible
Test Data Input Verification (insures accuracy)
Available in English and Spanish
Annual Database Research (Free)
Annual Testing Program Summary (Free)
Alcohol and Drugs Scales
Antisocial Scale
Peer Pressure Scale
Stress Coping Abilities Scale
Entitlement Scale
Highly Rated by NHTSA
Easily Understood Reports
Reports Recommendations can be Individualized

1st Offense Inventory Software

The 1st Offense Inventory is available in Windows formatted test diskettes. Windows diskettes require a simple one-time computer setup procedure after which 1st Offense data (25 or 50 test applications) diskettes are used.

Proprietary 1st Offense data diskette's contains 25 or 50 test applications. These 3½" diskettes score, interpret and print reports on-site. Once your account is established, ordered diskettes are mailed to users. When all test applications are used, diskettes are returned to BDS where the test data and demographics are downloaded into the 1st Offense Inventory database for subsequent research analysis. The proprietary "delete names" program is activated by the test users with a few keystrokes to delete all names from the diskettes before they are returned to BDS. Deleting all client names insures client confidentiality.

Staff Member Input

Some people advocate fully automated assessment; BDS does not. The 1st Offense Inventory is to be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment. For these reasons, the following statement is contained in each report: "1st Offense Inventory reports are confidential and should be considered working hypotheses. No decision should be based solely upon test results. 1st Offense Inventory results are to be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment."

Click here to review a 1st Offense Inventory example report.

Additional information can be provided upon request by writing:
Behavior Data Systems, Ltd.
P.O. Box 44256
Phoenix, Arizona 85064-4256

Our telephone number is (602) 234-3506.
Our fax number is (602) 266-8227.
and our e-mail address is

Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. Copyright © 2007