Designed for Shoplifter (misdemeanor and felony) Assessment
The Shoplifting Inventory (SI)
designed for shoplifter evaluation. Shoplifters come from a variety of
backgrounds, from rural and urban settings, and are representative of
different ages, genders, ethnic groups and educational backgrounds. The
Shoplifting Inventory (SI) has 7 scales (measures):
4. Peer Pressure Scale,
5. Alcohol Scale,
6. Drugs Scale,
Self-Esteem Scale. The SI consists of 141 items and
takes 30 minutes to complete. This is a unique test that explores motivation,
attitude and need. It assesses areas deemed necessary for adequately understanding shoplifters.
** Shoplifting Inventory **
Defendant (misdemeanor and felony) assessment in court settings.
Help in determining the seriousness of the problem and the client's needs.
Male and female defendants in probation and community corrections.
Diversion program screening.
Assist in case management information gathering.
Theories about shoplifting proliferate. However, shoplifter motivation is complex. Many shoplifters
regard themselves as special. Some have inflated self-esteem; whereas,
others disapprove of themselves. Shoplifters often believe they are
entitled to the things they want and take them when they can. These people
believe they are entitled. Then, there are the antisocial and uncaring
shoplifters. Some shoplifters blame their actions on substance abuse. Many
claim their shoplifting is impulsive. Peer pressure, particularly during
adolescence, can be a powerful influence. And then, there are people who
don't know why they shoplift. Yet, they do steal from stores during shopping hours.
The SI has 141 items and takes 30 minutes to complete. It has a high 5th to low 6th
grade reading level. SI tests are scored on-site with reports available within 3 minutes of data input.
* * * * *
Seven SI Scales (Measures)
Truthfulness Scale: Measures how truthful the shoplifter was while completing the SI. It
identifies denial, problem minimization and attempts to fake good.
Shoplifting Scale: Measures a person's tendency toward stealing things from stores. This
is more of a characterological scale and measures the probability of shoplifting.
Measures a tendency to act on sudden impulse. Some people respond
suddenly or spontaneously; whereas, others are more deliberate.
Peer Pressure Scale: Measures a person's susceptibility to peer pressure and the influence
Alcohol Scale: Measures the frequency and magnitude of alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol
refers to beer, wine and other liquor.
Drugs Scale: Measures illicit drug use and abuse. Drugs refer to marijuana,
cocaine, crack, amphetamines, barbiturates and heroin. This scale is independent of the Alcohol Scale.
Measures a person's perception of self. Self-esteem incorporates an
attitude of acceptance-approval versus rejection-disapproval of oneself. It describes the person one believes oneself
* * * * *
SI Test Booklet
Shoplifting Inventory (SI) test booklets are provided free. These booklets contain 141 items and are
written at a high 5th to low 6th grade reading level. If a person can read the newspaper, they can
read the SI. Questions are direct and easily understood. It takes 30 minutes, on average, to complete this test. SI test
booklets are available in both English and Spanish.
In brief, SI reports summarize the offender's self-reported history, explain what attained scores mean and
offer specific score-related recommendations.
Within 3 minutes from test data entry, automated (computer-scored) 3-page reports are available on-site.
These reports summarize a wealth of information in an easily understood format. For example, these reports include an SI
profile (graph), which summarizes test findings at a glance. Also included are explanations of
what each score means and specific score-related recommendations.
Significant items (direct admissions) are highlighted, and answers to the built-in interview (the
last sequence of multiple choice items) are presented. Emphasis has been
placed on having meaningful reports that are helpful and easily understood.
If you would like to go directly to an example SI report, click on the
Report link. The example SI report is presented at the end of this webpage.
Advantages of Screening
Screening and assessment instruments filter out individuals with serious problems that may need referral for a
more comprehensive evaluation and/or treatment. This filtering system works as follows:
SHOPLIFTING INVENTORY RISK RANGES
Risk Range Percentile
0 - 39%
40 - 69%
70 - 89%
90 - 100%
Reference to the above table shows that a problem is not identified until a scale score is at or above the
70th percentile. These risk range percentiles are based upon the offenders that
have taken the SI. This procedure is fair and avoids extremes, i.e.,
over-identification and under-identification of problems and risk.
A court, probation department or assessment agency's policy might refer clients with severe problems (11%)
for further evaluation and/or treatment. In this case, 11% of the people
screened (Severe Problem) would be referred. Or, policy might refer
offenders with identified problems (Problem and Severe Problem). In this
case, 31% of the people would be referred. In these examples, 89% or 69% (contingent upon adopted policy) of
the people screened would not be referred for additional (and expensive) services.
Budgetary savings (dollars) would be large with no compromises in needy people receiving appropriate evaluation
and/or treatment services. Indeed, more needy people would receive help. Without a screening program, there is usually more
risk of over or under-utilization of additional professional services.
The SI system contains a proprietary database. Earlier, it was noted that all SI used diskettes are returned to
Behavior Data Systems, and the test data along with related demographics are downloaded into
the SI database. This expanding database allows ongoing research and testing
program summary capabilities that were not possible before. Ongoing research
ensures quality control. Annual testing program summaries provide program self-evaluation.
The SI permits ongoing research and annual program summary -- at no additional cost. When the 25 or 50 tests on
a data diskette are used, that diskette is returned to Behavior Data
Systems and downloaded into the expanding SI database.
No personal information, names, social security numbers, etc. are ever downloaded into any
Advantages of this proprietary database are many and include database (research) analysis and annual
testing program summary reports. Returned diskettes from a state, department, court or agency can be selected from the
database for research analysis. Database analysis insures quality control.
After downloading test data returned diskettes are destroyed.
In summary, having all used SI test data centrally filed at Behavior Data
Systems' offices has many advantages. Database
analysis permits ongoing cost efficient research that includes scale alpha coefficients, frequency distributions,
correlations, ANOVA, cross-tab statistics along with reliability, validity and accuracy determinations. The
SI Research Study link takes you to the research study at the bottom of this webpage.
Annual Summary Reports
Behavior Data Systems can access each of its tests' built-in databases for statistical analysis and summarization of all
tests administered in a year. Annual Summary Reports are prepared for state, department, agency and even some individual
providers -- at no cost to them. These reports are provided as a professional courtesy to large volume test users. Summary
reports include demographics, court-history when relevant, and test statistics (reliability, validity and accuracy). Has
anyone offered to summarize your testing program? Annually? At no additional cost to you? Minimum testing volume for
annual reports is 350 tests. There is no maximum limit. Behavior Data
Systems' annual reports range in size from 350 tests to
over 55,000 tests annually. An example Annual Summary Report can be viewed by clicking on this
Annual Summary Report link.
Reliability and Validity
The SI has a built-in proprietary database that insures inclusion of all tests administered in a confidential
(no names) manner. And, these reliability, validity and accuracy statistics are reported in the research summary document
titled "SI: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." SI scales maintain high reliability coefficients.
For example, coefficient alpha's for SI scales are reported below for 1,037 shoplifters screened in the year 2002.
RELIABILITY OF THE SI (N=1,037, 2002)
Peer Pressure Scale
All SI scales have alpha coefficients well above the professionally accepted standard of .75 and
are highly reliable. All coefficient alphas are significant at the p<.001 level.
Early SI studies used criterion measures and were validated with other tests, e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality Inventory (MMPI) L and F-Scales, 16PF, SAQ-Adult Probation III, MacAndrews, Defendant Questionnaire, etc. Much of
this research is summarized in the "SI: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." And, ongoing
database analysis (research) is done to evaluate reliability and validity.
Staff Member Input
Some people advocate fully automated assessment; Behavior Data Systems does not. The SI is to be used in conjunction with
experienced staff judgment. When available, court records should be reviewed. Experienced staff should also interview the
offender. For these reasons, the following statement is contained in each SI report: "Shoplifting Inventory or SI
reports are confidential and should be considered working hypotheses. No diagnosis or decision should be based solely upon
these results. The SI is to be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment and review of available records."
Unique SI Features
Truthfulness Scale:Identifies denial,
problem minimization and faking. It is now known that many offenders attempt
to minimize their problems. A Truthfulness Scale is a necessary component in
contemporary tests. The SI's Truthfulness Scale has been validated with the
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), polygraph exams, other
tests, truthfulness studies and experienced staff judgment. The SI's
Truthfulness Scale has been demonstrated to be reliable, valid and accurate.
In some respects, the SI's Truthfulness Scale is similar to the MMPI's L and
F-Scales. It consists of a number of items that most people agree or disagree with.
Truth-Corrected Scores: Have proven to
be very important for assessment accuracy. This proprietary truth correction
process is comparable to the MMPI's K-Scale correction. The SI's Truthfulness
Scale has been correlated with the other 8 scales. The Truth Correction
equation converts raw scores to Truth-Corrected scores. Truth-Corrected
scores are more accurate than raw scores. Raw scores reflect what the
offender wants you to know. Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the offender is attempting to hide.
More than just another alcohol or drug
test. In addition to alcohol and drugs, the SI assesses other important
areas of inquiry like truthfulness, denial and faking, self-esteem, peer
pressure, impulsiveness, etc. The SI is specifically designed for shoplifter screening.
Three ways to give the SI.
The SI can
be administered in three different ways:
Paper-pencil test booklet format
is the most popular testing procedure. SI English and Spanish test booklets
and answer sheets are available.
2. Tests can be given directly on the
computer screen. Some agencies dedicate computers for SI testing. And,
3. Human Voice Audio in English or Spanish is available. These three test
administration modes are discussed in the "SI: Orientation and Training
Manual." Each test administration mode has advantages and some limitations.
Behavior Data Systems offers these three test modes so test users can select the
administration mode that is optimally suited to their needs.
impaired offenders represent 20+ percent of the offenders tested. This
represents a serious problem to other treatment tests. Behavior Data Systems has developed an
alternative for dealing with this problem: Human Voice Audio.
Human Voice Audio: Presentation of the SI is in English and Spanish. Clients'
passive vocabularies are often greater than their active vocabularies.
Hearing items read out loud often helps reduce cultural and communication
problems. This administration mode requires earphones and simple
instructions to orient the offender to the up-down arrow keys on the
computer keyboard. Human Voice Audio is an alternative approach for screening reading impaired offenders.
Systems encourages test
users to delete offender names from diskettes before they are returned to
Behavior Data Systems. Once offender names are deleted, they are gone and cannot be retrieved.
Deleting offender names does not delete demographics or test data, which is
downloaded into the SI database for subsequent analysis. This proprietary
name deletion procedure involves a few keystrokes and insures offender confidentiality
and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).
Test Data Input Verification: Allows
the person that inputs test data from the answer sheet into the computer to
verify the accuracy of their data input. In brief, test data is input twice,
and any inconsistencies between the first and second data entries are
highlighted until corrected. When the first and second data entries match or
are the same, the staff person can continue. This proprietary Data Input
Verification procedure is optional, yet strongly recommended by Behavior
Inventory of Scientific Findings:
Much of the SI research has been gathered together in a
document titled "SI: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." This document summarizes SI research chronologically --
as the studies were completed. This chronological reporting format was established largely because of the SI database, which
permits annual database analysis of all tests administered.
Test Unit Fee (Cost):
SI cost information can be reviewed by clicking on the
Test Unit Fee
(Cost) link. There is only the one cost or charge, and that is the test unit
fee. Everything else is included at no additional cost to the test user. This
includes: test booklets, answer sheets, training manuals, upgrades, ongoing
database research, annual summary testing reports, staff training and support
services. Do not be misled by some test publishers' à la carte pricing like
separate costs for each test administration as well as for each of the
test-related items listed above. Instead of asking for the test administration
cost, ask for the total cost involved in using a test. We believe Behavior Data
Systems' one test
unit fee is very affordable.
Free Examination Kit:
A 1-test demonstration diskette is available on a 30-day cost free basis. Demo diskettes are in
Windows format. The Examination Kit includes a 1-test demo diskette, installation CD (with instructions),
test booklet, answer sheet and some descriptive materials. Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. does want the
test booklet and diskette returned within 30 days.
Selecting a Shoplifter Screening Instrument or Test
If you are selecting a screening instrument or test for shoplifter assessment, the following Comparison
Checklist should prove helpful. It lists important screening test qualities.
The "Other" column represents any other test you might want to compare to the SI.
TEST COMPARISON CHECKLIST
Designed Specifically for Shoplifter Assessment
Test Reliability and Validity Research Provided
Test Completed in 30 Minutes
Reports within 3 Minutes On-Site
Truthfulness Scale to Detect Minimization and Faking
Shoplifting Inventory (SI) reports consist of 3 printed pages. Within 3 minutes of test data entry, SI reports
are scored, interpreted and printed on-site.
of the SI report presents the offender's name, some brief demographics and a
self-reported court history. The SI Profile (graph) identifies SI scales by name, presents attained scale scores and
graphically summarizes the nine scale scores. The Truthfulness Scale paragraph completes the first page of the SI report.
The second page of the SI report presents seven scale paragraphs: Alcohol Scale, Drugs Scale,
Antisocial Scale, Shoplifting Scale, Entitlement Scale, Peer Pressure Scale and the Self-Esteem Scale. Each of these paragraphs
gives the offender's attained score, explains what that score means and presents score-related recommendations.
The third page of the SI report begins with the Impulsiveness Scale paragraph. Significant items
(direct admissions or unusual answers) are presented for the Alcohol, Drugs, Antisocial and Shoplifting Scales. Space is provided
for staff comments or recommendations, their signature and date of the assessment. Page 3 concludes with a reproduction of the
shoplifter's answers to all 141 items.
With regard to the Shoplifting Inventory (SI) its criminogenic needs include:
Shoplifting, Entitlement, Peer Pressure, Self-Esteem, Impulsiveness, Antisocial
Thoughts and Substance (alcohol and other drugs) Abuse. It is not by
chance that these criminogenic needs represent the Shoplifting Inventory (SI)
scales or measures.
Additional information can be provided upon request by writing:
Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. P.O. Box 44256 Phoenix, Arizona 85064-4256
Our telephone number is (602) 234-3506.
Our fax number is (602) 266-8227.
and our e-mail address is