The Domestic Violence Inventory-Juvenile, or
DVI-Juvenile, is designed for juvenile
domestic violence offender assessment. The DVI-Juvenile consists of 149 items,
takes 30 minutes to complete and has six scales (measures):
1. Truthfulness Scale,
Control Scale, 4. Drugs Scale,
Violence (Lethality) Scale, and
Stress Coping Abilities Scale. The DVI-Juvenile was adapted from the Domestic
Violence Inventory (DVI) and standardized on the norms of juvenile offenders.
** DVI-Juvenile **
- Assessment of juveniles accused or convicted of domestic violence.
- Domestic violence assessment in juvenile clinics, court settings,
probation departments and service provider
- Juvenile courts and presentence investigation.
- Juvenile evaluation, counseling and treatment agencies.
Six Scales (Measures)
The six DVI-Juvenile scales are described as follows:
- Truthfulness Scale:
Measures how truthful the client was while completing the test. This scale
identifies denial, guardedness, problem minimization and attempts to fake
- Violence (Lethality) Scale:
Measures the use of force to injure, damage or destroy. This scale
identifies people that are a danger to self and others. Within the context
of domestic violence, the terms violence and domestic violence are used
- Control Scale:
Measures a person's need to control others.
In social psychology, control is often a synonym for power and influence. Control refers to the
process of regulating, restraining or controlling others.
- Alcohol Scale:
Measures the severity of alcohol use and abuse.
Alcohol refers to beer, wine and other liquors. Alcohol is often involved in juvenile domestic
- Drugs Scale: Measures the severity of drug use and abuse.
Drugs refer to marijuana, crack, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates,heroin etc. Illicit
drugs are often involved in juvenile domestic violence.
- Stress Coping Abilities Scale:
Measures a juvenile's ability to cope with stress, anxiety and pressure.
Stress exacerbates emotional and mental health symptomatology. This scale is
a non-introversive screen for established (diagnosable) emotional and
mental health problems.
* * * * *
Domestic Violence Inventory (DVI) Versions
The DVI-Juvenile assesses attitudes and behaviors important in domestic violence offender
profiling. Paper-pencil test administration takes on average 30 minutes, and tests are computer-scored
on-site. Reports are printed within 2½ minutes of data entry.
The DVI-Juvenile was developed specifically for juvenile domestic violence evaluation. It is
much more than just another alcohol or drug test; consequently, it measures important behaviors
missed by other tests.
* * * * *
Why Use the DVI-Juvenile?
Juvenile domestic violence crime
rates have risen across the U.S. These statistics underscore the abhorrent
effects of domestic violence and the need for reliable, accurate and valid
juvenile assessment. Early detection of domestic
violence perpetrators facilitates quicker intervention and treatment.
This information also helps in deciding upon levels of supervision in
counseling, treatment, probation and alternatives to incarceration.
At one sitting of approximately 30
minutes' duration, a staff can acquire a vast amount of juvenile domestic
violence perpetrator information, which includes the probability of acting
out, controlling tendencies, substance (alcohol and other drugs) abuse and
stress coping abilities. Early problem identification facilitates timely
intervention and improved outcome.
Advantages of Screening
Screening or assessment instruments filter out juveniles with serious problems that may require
referral for a more comprehensive evaluation and/or treatment. This filtering system works as
DVI-JUVENILE RISK RANGES
||0 - 39%
||40 - 69%
||70 - 89%
Reference to the above table shows
that a problem is not identified until a scale score is at or above the 70th
percentile. These risk range percentiles are based upon the norms of the juveniles that
have completed the DVI-Juvenile. This procedure is fair and avoids extremes
such as over-identification and under-identification of problems and risk.
A court, department or agency's
policy might be to refer juveniles with severe problems (11%) for further
evaluation and/or treatment. In this case, 11% of the juveniles screened
(severe problem) would be referred for further evaluation and treatment
In these examples, 89%
(contingent upon adopted policy) of the juveniles screened would not be
referred for additional and expensive services.
Potential budgetary savings
(dollars) is large, with no compromises in juveniles receiving
appropriate evaluations and/or treatment services. Indeed, more
juveniles would receive help. Without a screening program, there is usually
more risk of over- or under-utilization of additional professional services.
DVI-Juvenile test booklets are
provided free. These booklets contain 149 items and are written at a fifth
to sixth grade reading level. If a person can read the newspaper,
they can read the DVI-Juvenile. The DVI-Juvenile test booklets are available
in English and Spanish.
In brief, DVI-Juvenile reports
summarize the respondent's self-report history, explain what attained scale
scores mean and offer specific score-related recommendations.
Within 2½ minutes of test data entry,
automated (computer-scored) three-page reports are printed on-site. These reports
summarize a lot of information in an easily understood format. For example,
reports include a DVI-Juvenile profile (graph), which summarizes scale scores
at a glance. Also included are attained scale scores, an explanation of what
each score means and specific score-related recommendations. In addition,
significant items (direct admissions) are highlighted, and answers to multiple choice items (last sequence of items) are presented. Emphasis is placed
on having meaningful reports that are helpful and easily understood.
Reliability, Validity and Accuracy
The DVI-Juvenile has a proprietary
built-in database that insures inclusion of all administered tests in a
confidential (no names) manner. These reliability, validity and accuracy
statistics are reported in the document titled "DVI: An Inventory of
Scientific Findings." Annual database analysis further demonstrates that
DVI-Juvenile scales have very high reliability and validity coefficients.
For example, internal consistencies
(coefficient alphas) for DVI-Juvenile scales are reported in the following
table for some juvenile domestic violence offenders (N=542) screened in the
year 2002. This is only one among several year 2002 samples.
DVI-JUVENILE RELIABILITY (N=542, 2002)
|Stress Coping Abilities
All DVI-Juvenile scales have alpha
coefficients well above the professionally accepted standard of .75 and are
highly reliable. All coefficient alphas are significant at the p<.001 level.
Early DVI-Juvenile studies used
criterion measures, and were validated with other tests, e.g., Minnesota
Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) L-Scale and F-Scale, 16PF,
ACDI-Corrections Version II, Taylor-Manifest Anxiety Scale, and Treatment
Much of this research is summarized
in the document "DVI: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." The
discriminant validity and predictive validity research therein supports DVI-Juvenile
reliability, validity and accuracy.
The DVI-Juvenile is available in
diskettes require a one-time computer setup procedure after which data (25 or
50 test applications) diskettes are used to score and print reports. Training
manuals are provided free, and new test users can be walked through these
scoring procedures over the phone.
Proprietary DVI-Juvenile diskettes
contain 25 or 50 test applications. These 3½" diskettes score,
interpret and print reports on-site. Once a DVI-Juvenile account is
established, ordered diskettes are mailed to users. Approximately 97% of
orders are filled and mailed back to users the same day. When all test
applications are used, the diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. (BDS) where the demographics (age, gender, ethnicity, etc.) and test data are
downloaded into the DVI-Juvenile database for subsequent database analysis.
The proprietary "delete names" program is activated by the test user with a
few keystrokes, to delete all juvenile names from diskettes before they are
returned to Behavior Data Systems. Deleting all juvenile names insures protection of their
confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (Federal Regulation 45 C.F.R.
The "DVI: Orientation and Training
Manual" explains how the DVI-Juvenile works and should be read by staff. The
"DVI: Computer Operating Guide" explains how to score tests, and print or store
reports, and discusses other unique DVI-Juvenile computer-related features.
The DVI-Juvenile system contains a
proprietary database. Earlier, it was noted that all used DVI-Juvenile
diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems, and the test data is downloaded into the DVI-Juvenile
database. This expanding database allows for ongoing research and
testing program summary features that were not possible before. Ongoing
research ensures quality control. Annual testing program summaries provide for
The DVI-Juvenile permits ongoing
research and annual program summary -- at no additional cost. As discussed
earlier, when the 25 or 50-test diskettes are used, used diskettes are
returned to Behavior Data Systems and downloaded into the expanding DVI-Juvenile database.
Advantages of this proprietary database are many, and include database research
analysis and annual summary reports.
No personal information, names, social security numbers, etc., are ever downloaded into any
Returned diskettes can be summarized
on a court, department or agency basis -- at no additional cost. Annual
summary reports provide information that permits testing program review.
After downloading test data, returned diskettes are destroyed.
In summary, all returned DVI-Juvenile
diskettes' test data is centrally filed at Behavior Data Systems' offices. This database has
many advantages. Database analysis permits ongoing cost efficient research
that includes scale alpha coefficients, ANOVA, frequency distributions,
correlations, and cross-tab statistics, along with reliability, validity and
Annual Summary Reports
Behavior Data Systems can access each of its
tests' built-in databases for statistical analysis and summarization of all
tests administered in a year. Annual Summary Reports are prepared
for state, department, agency and even some individual providers -- at no
cost. These reports are provided as a professional courtesy
to large volume test users. Summary reports include demographics,
court-history (when relevant) and test statistics (reliability, validity
and accuracy). Has anyone offered to summarize your testing program?
Annually? At no additional cost to you? Minimum testing volume for
annual reports is 350 tests. There is no maximum limit. Behavior
Data Systems' annual reports range in size from 350 tests to over 55,000 tests annually.
An example Annual Summary Report can be viewed by clicking on this
Annual Summary Reports link.
Staff Member Input
The DVI-Juvenile is to be used in
conjunction with experienced staff judgment. When available, court, school and
adjustment records should be reviewed, as they can contain important
information not provided or incorrectly provided by the juvenile. Experienced
staff members should also interview the juvenile. For these reasons, the following
statement is contained in each DVI-Juvenile report: "DVI-Juvenile results are
confidential and are considered working hypotheses. No diagnosis or decision
should be based solely upon DVI-Juvenile results. The DVI-Juvenile is to be
used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment."
Why Develop the DVI-Juvenile?
Domestic violence is an all too
frequent serious crime. It varies in severity from swearing and pushing to
battering. Domestic violence is a complex term that refers to verbal,
emotional or physical injury within a family or household relationship.
Contributing factors are many, and include substance (alcohol and other drugs)
abuse, violence (lethality) propensity, control issues and impaired stress
coping abilities. The DVI-Juvenile evaluates all of these important areas of inquiry.
How Do You Know if the Domestic Violence Offender is Lying?
The DVI-Juvenile contains a
Truthfulness Scale that determines how truthful the juvenile was while
completing the test. This scale identifies problem minimization and detects
faking. But, the DVI-Juvenile doesn't stop there. Error of measurement due to
untruthfulness is measured for each scale and is reported as Truth-Corrected
scores. Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the respondent is trying to hide.
Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw scores.
Unique DVI-Juvenile Features
truthful the juvenile was while completing the DVI-Juvenile. This scale
identifies denial, problem minimization and faking. Many juvenile domestic
violence offenders attempt to minimize their problems. The DVI-Juvenile's
Truthfulness Scale has been validated with other tests, truthfulness studies
and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) L and F-Scales. It
consists of a number of items that most people agree or disagree with. This
important scale has been demonstrated to be reliable, valid and accurate. Much
of this research is reported in the document titled "DVI: An Inventory of
have proven to be
important in enhancing assessment accuracy. This proprietary truth correction
program is comparable to the MMPI's K-Scale correction methodology. The
DVI-Juvenile's Truthfulness Scale has been correlated with the other five DVI-Juvenile scales.
The Truth Correction equation then converts raw scores to
Truth-Corrected scores. Raw scores reflect what the juvenile wants you to
know. Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the juvenile is trying to hide.
Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw scores.
Violence (Lethality) Scale
measures the juvenile's propensity for using force to injure, damage or
destroy. It identifies the juvenile's danger to self and others. The growing
awareness of violence in our society resulted in the inclusion of the Violence
(Lethality) Scale. When screening violence or lethality potential is
important, we recommend you use the DVI-Juvenile. Within the context of
domestic violence, the terms violence and domestic violence are used interchangeably.
Control Scale: In psychoanalytic theory,
control is the process of restraining or regulating impulses. In social psychology,
control is often a synonym of power or influence. In domestic violence,
"control" refers to the process of restraining, regulating or controlling
others. Controlling behaviors include, but are not limited to, pushing,
swearing, intimidating and hitting. The concept of control has become an
important construct in domestic violence research. Consequently, the Control
Scale was added to the DVI in 1998. The Control Scale adds greatly to our
assessment and understanding of domestic violence perpetrators. This important
area of inquiry is overlooked by other domestic violence tests.
The Stress Coping Abilities Scale
measures how well the juvenile
handles tension, stress and pressure. This scale goes beyond establishing
whether or not the juvenile is experiencing stress. It determines how well the
juvenile handles or copes with stress. Stress exacerbates emotional and mental
health symptoms. Consequently, this scale is a non-introversive way to screen
established (diagnosable) mental health problems. A juvenile scoring at or
above the 90th percentile on the Stress Coping Abilities Scale
should be referred to a certified/licensed mental health professional for a
more comprehensive evaluation and diagnosis, as warranted. This important area
of inquiry is missed by other domestic violence tests.
several levels of DVI-Juvenile scale interpretation, ranging from viewing the
DVI-Juvenile as a self-report to interpreting scale elevations and
interrelationships. Since the DVI-Juvenile evolved from the Domestic Violence
Inventory (DVI), readers are encouraged to examine this discussion on the DVI
More than just another alcohol or drug test. In addition to alcohol and
drug abuse, the DVI-Juvenile assesses other important areas of inquiry, like
truthfulness, violence (lethality), control issues and stress coping
abilities. The DVI-Juvenile is designed specifically for domestic violence perpetrators.
Three ways to give the DVI-Juvenile.
The DVI-Juvenile can be
administered in three different ways:
1. Paper-pencil test booklet format.
This is the most popular testing procedure. English and Spanish test booklets
are available. 2. Computer screen format. The DVI-Juvenile can be given directly on the computer
screen. And, 3. Human voice and computer format. Human voice audio involves a computer and a headset. The
juvenile uses the up-down arrow keys. As the juvenile goes from
question to answer with the arrow key, that question or answer is highlighted
on the monitor (screen) and simultaneously read to the juvenile. These three
test administration modes are discussed in the "DVI: Orientation and
Training Manual." Each mode has advantages and some
limitations. Behavior Data Systems offers these three test administration modes so test
users can select the test administration mode that is best suited to their needs.
Reading impaired assessment.
Reading impaired juveniles
represent 20+ percent of the domestic violence perpetrators tested. This
represents a serious problem for other domestic violence tests. In contrast,
Behavior Data Systems has developed a proprietary alternative for reading
impaired assessment, which is termed
"human voice audio."
Human Voice Audio.
Human Voice Audio is available in English and Spanish. It helps resolve many
reading and cultural difference issues. A person's passive vocabulary is often
greater than their active (spoken) vocabularies. Hearing items read out loud
often helps reduce cultural and/or communication problems. As discussed earlier,
"human voice audio" test presentation requires a computer, earphones and
simple instructions regarding how to operate the up-down arrow keys located on
the computer keyboard. Without this "human voice audio" option, a domestic
violence perpetrator testing program can be limited.
Behavior Data Systems encourages test users to delete juvenile names from diskettes before they
are returned to Behavior Data Systems. This proprietary name deletion procedure involves a few
keystrokes. Once juvenile names are deleted, they are gone and cannot be
retrieved. Deleting names does not delete demographics or test data, which is
downloaded into the DVI-Juvenile database for subsequent analysis. This
procedure insures juvenile confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (Federal
Regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).
Test Data Input Verification:
This proprietary program allows the
person that inputs test data from the answer sheet into the computer to verify
the accuracy of their data input. In brief, test data is input twice, and any
inconsistencies between the first and second data entries are highlighted
until corrected. When the first and second data entries match or are the same,
the staff person may continue. Use of this data input verification procedure
is optional, yet strongly recommended by Behavior Data Systems.
Inventory of Scientific Findings:
Much of the DVI-Juvenile research has been
gathered together in one document titled "DVI: An Inventory of Scientific
Findings." This document summarizes DVI-Juvenile research chronologically -- as
the studies were completed.
This innovative chronological
reporting format was established largely thanks to the DVI-Juvenile database,
which permits annual database analysis of all tests administered that year. It
also allows the reader to see the evolution of the DVI-Juvenile into its
current state-of-the-art position.
Behavior Data Systems' staff are available to participate in DVI-Juvenile training programs scheduled by test users in the United States. Large departments,
agencies or statewide programs often are interested in DVI-Juvenile training.
Sometimes, smaller agencies or departments get together for a joint DVI-Juvenile
training session. Behavior Data Systems gives attendees certificates
attesting to their DVI-Juvenile training.
Staff training is also provided on Fridays at Behavior Data Systems'
Phoenix offices from 8:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. and from 1:30 p.m. to 4:30
p.m. These training sessions are free. To participate, contact Behavior
Data Systems at least ten days in advance. Participation is on a first call, first scheduled basis.
Test Unit Fee (Cost):
DVI-Juvenile cost information can be reviewed
by clicking on the
Prices link. There is only the one cost or charge, and that is the test unit
fee. Everything else is included at no additional cost to the test user. This
includes test booklets, answer sheets, training manuals, upgrades, ongoing
database research, annual summary testing reports, staff training, and support
services. Do not be misled by some test publishers' à la carte pricing like
separate costs for each test administration as well as for each of the
test-related items listed above. Instead of asking for the test administration
cost, ask for the total cost involved in using a test. We believe Behavior Data
Systems' one test
unit fee is very affordable.
Free Examination Kit:
A one-test demonstration diskette is available on a 30-day cost free basis. Demo diskettes are in
Windows format. The Examination Kit includes a one-test demo diskette, installation CD (with instructions),
test booklet, answer sheet and some descriptive materials. Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. does want the
test booklet and diskette returned within 30 days.
Selecting a Juvenile Domestic Violence Offender Assessment Instrument or Test
If you are selecting a juvenile
domestic violence offender assessment instrument, the following Comparison
Checklist should prove helpful. This checklist itemizes important assessment
and screening qualities. The "Other" column represents any other test you
might want to compare to the DVI-Juvenile.