Developed Specifically for Juvenile Pre-Disposition Evaluation
Pre-Disposition Evaluation (JPE) is designed specifically for juvenile pre-disposition evaluation. The Juvenile Pre-Disposition Evaluation has
159 items and takes 35 minutes to complete. The Juvenile Pre-Disposition Evaluation has nine
measures (scales): 1. Truthfulness Scale,
2. Suicide Scale,
3. Resistance Scale,
4. Self-Esteem Scale,
(Lethality) Scale, 6. Alcohol Scale,
7. Drugs Scale,
Distress Scale and
Stress Coping Abilities Scale.
** Juvenile Pre-Disposition Evaluation **
- Juvenile court evaluations
- Juvenile pre-isposition evaluations
- Probation departments and community corrections
- Certified/licensed mental health providers
- Juvenile drug courts
Nine Scales (Measures)
The nine Juvenile Pre-Disposition Evaluation (JPE) scales are described below:
- Truthfulness Scale:
Measures how truthful the juvenile was while completing the test. This scale
identifies denial, guardedness, problem minimization and attempts to "fake good."
- Suicide Scale: Identifies suicide prone individuals.
Some youths are emotionally overwhelmed, desperate and dangerous to
- Resistance Scale:
Measures defensiveness, uncooperativeness and resistance. Some youths resist
help, whereas others accept it.
- Self-Esteem Scale:
Reflects a person's explicit valuing and appraisal of self. It incorporates
an attitude of acceptance-approval versus rejection-disapproval.
- Violence (Lethality) Scale:
Measures the use of force to injure, damage or destroy. This scale measures
the youth's danger to self and others. Adolescent violence concerns
contributed to the inclusion of this scale.
- Alcohol Scale: Measures
alcohol (beer, wine and liquor) use and abuse. This scale measures the
severity of alcohol abuse while identifying alcohol-related problems.
- Drugs Scale: Measures
the severity of illicit drug (marijuana, crack, cocaine, amphetamines,
barbiturates, heroin, etc.) use and abuse while identifying drug-related problems.
- Distress Scale: Measures
experienced pain, worry, sorrow and grief. Distress can involve both mental
and physical strain. Distress is a common reason why youths seek counseling.
- Stress Coping Abilities Scale:
Measures how well the youth handles stress, tension and pressure. Stress
exacerbates symptoms of emotional and mental health problems.
The Juvenile Pre-Disposition Evaluation (JPE) assesses
attitudes and behaviors important to juvenile adjustment profiles. The JPE is
much more than just another alcohol or drug test: It measures many
important behaviors missed by other tests.
* * * * *
Why Use the JPE?
Juvenile crime rates have risen across the
U.S. These statistics underscore the abhorrent affects of substance (alcohol and
other drugs) abuse and juvenile violence.
Early detection of juvenile problems facilitates
prompt and appropriate decision making.
This type of information helps in deciding upon treatment, probation and
incarceration alternatives. It also helps in deciding upon levels of supervision
and incarceration alternatives.
At one sitting of approximately 35
minutes' duration, the authorities can acquire a vast amount of perpetrator
information that includes attitudinal, behavioral and juvenile problems. Early
problem identification facilitates timely intervention and improved outcome.
Advantages of Screening
Screening or assessment instruments filter
out individuals with serious problems that may require referral for more
comprehensive evaluations and/or treatment. This filtering system works as follows:
JPE RISK RANGES
0 - 39%
40 - 69%
||70 - 89%
||90 - 100%
Reference to the above table shows that
a problem is not identified until a scale score is at the 70th
percentile or higher. These risk range percentiles are based upon juveniles
that have been tested with the JPE. This procedure is fair and avoids both
extremes, specifically over-identification and under-identification of problems and risk.
A court, prosecutor, defense attorney or
probation officer might refer juveniles with identified problems for further
evaluation, intervention, treatment or even incarceration. In these cases,
11% of the juveniles screened (severe problem) would be
referred. Or, policy might refer juveniles with identified (problem risk and
severe problem) problems or thirty-one percent (31%) of the juveniles screened
for further evaluation, treatment or even incarceration.
In these examples, 89% or 69%
(contingent upon adopted policy) of the juveniles screened would not be
referred for additional (and expensive) alternatives.
Potential for budgetary savings
(dollars) is large, with no compromises in
appropriate evaluation, treatment or levels of supervision services for juveniles.
Consequently, more juveniles could receive help. Without a screening program, there
is usually more risk of over- or under-utilization of additional specialized services.
JPE test booklets are provided free. These
booklets contain 159 items and are written at a fifth to sixth
grade reading level. If a person can read the newspaper, they can read the JPE.
The JPE test booklets are available in English and Spanish.
In brief, a JPE report summarizes the juvenile's self-reported history, explains what the attained scale
scores mean and offers specific score-related recommendations.
Within 2½ minutes of test data entry,
automated (computer-scored) three-page reports are printed on-site. These reports
summarize a lot of information in an easily understood format. For example,
these reports include a JPE profile (graph), which summarizes scale scores at
a glance. Also included are attained scale scores, an explanation of what each
score means and specific score-related recommendations. In addition,
significant items (direct admissions) are highlighted, and answers to a
built-in interview (last sequence of items) are presented. Emphasis is placed
on generating meaningful reports that are helpful and easily understood.
To review a JPE report, click on this
JPE Example Report link. The example
JPE report is also presented at the end of this webpage.
Reliability and Validity
The JPE has a proprietary built-in
database that insures inclusion of all test data administered in a confidential (no
names) manner. JPE reliability and validity are reported in the document titled
"JPE: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." Annual database analysis further
demonstrates that JPE scales have high reliability coefficients.
For example, internal consistencies (coefficient alphas) for JPE scales are in the following table.
This study incorporates 1,329 juveniles screened in the year 2001.
RELIABILITY OF THE JPE (N=1,329, 2001)
Juvenile Pre-Disposition Evaluation Scales
|Violence (Lethality) Scale
|Stress Coping Abilities Scale
All JPE scales have alpha coefficients
well above the professionally accepted standard of .75, and are highly
reliable. All coefficient alphas are significant at the p<.001 level.
Early JPE studies used criterion measures
and were validated with other tests, e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality
Inventory (MMPI) L Scale and F Scale, 16 PF, MMPI Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale,
ACDI-Corrections Version II, MMPI Depression Scale and Treatment Intervention
Much of this research is summarized in the
document titled "JPE: Inventory of Scientific Findings." Subsequently,
discriminant and predictive validity database analysis-based studies support JPE
reliability, validity and accuracy.
The JPE is available on Windows
diskettes. Windows diskettes
require a one-time computer setup procedure after which JPE data diskettes (25
or 50 test applications) can be used to score and print reports. Training manuals
are provided, and new test users can be walked through these scoring procedures over the telephone.
Proprietary JPE diskettes contain 25 or 50
test applications. These 3½" diskettes score, interpret and print reports
on-site. Once a JPE account is established, ordered diskettes are mailed to
users. Approximately 97% of the orders are filled and mailed back to users the same
day. When all test applications are used, diskettes are returned to Behavior
Data Systems, Ltd. (BDS), where the demographics (e.g., age, sex, ethnicity) and test data
are downloaded into the JPE database for subsequent database analysis. The
proprietary "delete names" program is activated by the test user with a few
keystrokes, to delete all juveniles' names from diskettes before they are
returned to Behavior Data Systems. Deleting all juvenile names insures
protection of each youth's confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (Federal
Regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).
The "JPE: Orientation and Training Manual"
explains how the JPE works and should be read by the staff. The "JPE: Computer
Operating Guide" explains how to score tests, print or store reports and
discusses other unique JPE computer-related functions.
The JPE system contains a proprietary
built-in database. Earlier, it was noted that all JPE used diskettes are
returned to Behavior Data Systems, and the test data is downloaded into the JPE
database. This expanding database allows for ongoing research and testing program
summary features that had not been possible before. Ongoing research insures quality
control. Annual testing program summaries provide for program self-evaluation.
The JPE permits ongoing research and
annual program summary -- at no additional cost. As discussed earlier, when the
25 or 50 tests on a diskette are used, the used diskette is returned to Behavior Data
Systems and downloaded into the
expanding JPE database. Advantages of this proprietary database are many, and include database research
analysis and annual summary reports.
No personal information, names, social security numbers, etc. are ever downloaded into any
Returned diskettes can be summarized on a
state, department, agency or provider basis - at no additional cost to users.
Annual summary reports provide information for testing program review. Click on
Annual Summary Reports link to
review an example summary report.
After downloading test data, returned diskettes are destroyed.
In summary, all returned JPE diskettes are
centrally filed at Behavior Data Systems' offices. This database has many
advantages. Database analysis permits ongoing cost efficient research that
includes scale alpha coefficients, ANOVA, frequency distributions, correlations and
cross-tab statistics, along with reliability, validity and accuracy determinations.
Annual Summary Reports
Behavior Data Systems can access each of its
tests' built-in databases for statistical analysis and summarization of all
tests administered in a year. Annual Summary Reports are prepared
for state, department, agency and even some individual providers -- at no
cost. These reports are provided as a professional courtesy
to large volume test users. Summary reports include demographics,
court-history (when relevant), and test statistics (reliability, validity
and accuracy). Has anyone offered to summarize your testing program?
Annually? At no additional cost to you? Minimum testing volume for
annual reports is 800 tests. There is no maximum limit. Behavior Data
Systems' annual reports range in size from 800 tests to over 55,000 tests annually.
An example Annual Summary Report can be viewed by clicking on this
Annual Summary Reports link.
Staff Member Input
The JPE is to be used in conjunction with
review of available records and experienced staff members' judgment. When available,
court and adjustment records should be reviewed, as they can contain important
information not provided or incorrectly provided by the juvenile. Experienced
staff members should also interview the juvenile. For these reasons, the following
statement is contained in each JPE report: "JPE results are confidential and
should be considered working hypotheses. No decision or diagnosis should be
based solely upon JPE results. The JPE is to be used in conjunction with
experienced staff judgment."
How Do You Know If the Juvenile Is Lying?
The JPE contains a Truthfulness Scale that
determines how truthful the juvenile was while completing the test. This scale
detects problem minimization and detects faking. And, the JPE doesn't stop
there. Error of measurement due to untruthfulness is measured for each scale and
reported as a Truth-Corrected score. Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the
juvenile is trying to hide. Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw scores.
Free Examination Kit:
A one-test demonstration diskette is available on a 30-day cost free basis. Demo diskettes are in
Windows format. The Examination Kit includes a one-test demo diskette, installation CD (with instructions),
test booklet, answer sheet and some descriptive materials. Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. does want the
test booklet and diskette returned within 30 days.
Selecting a Juvenile Pre-Disposition Test
If you are selecting a pre-Disposition test for juveniles, the
following Comparison Checklist should prove helpful. It lists important
screening test qualities. The "Other" column represents any other test you might
want to compare to the JPE.
TEST COMPARISON CHECKLIST
|Designed specifically for juvenile pre-disposition testing
|Test reliability & validity research provided
|Test completed in 35 minutes
|On-site reports within three minutes
|Truthfulness Scale to detect faking
|Truth-Corrected scores for accuracy
|Three test administration options
| 1. Paper-pencil (English and Spanish)
| 2. On computer screen (English and Spanish)
| 3. Human Voice Audio (English and Spanish)
|Delete Juveniles' Names (insures confidentiality)
|HIPAA (federal regulation) Compliant
|Test data input verification (insures accuracy)
|Available in English and Spanish
|Built-in database at no additional cost
|Alcohol and Drugs Scales
|Violence (Lethality) Scale
|Stress Coping Abilities Scale
|Easily understood and helpful reports
|ASAM compatible recommendations
|Staff training (Free)
|Examination kits (Free)
|Thirty-Day money back guarantee
|Very affordable test unit fee
Scale: Identifies denial, problem
minimization and faking. It is now
known that most juveniles attempt to minimize their problems. A Truthfulness
Scale is a necessary component in contemporary tests. The JPE Truthfulness
Scale has been demonstrated to be reliable, valid and accurate.
Scores: Have proven to be very important for assessment accuracy. This
proprietary truth correction process is comparable to the MMPI K-Scale
correction. The JPE Truthfulness Scale has been correlated with the other eight
scales. The truth-correction equation then converts raw scores to
Truth-Corrected scores. Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw
scores. Raw scores reflect what the juvenile wants you to know.
Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the juvenile is attempting to hide.
More than just
another alcohol or drug test: In addition to alcohol and drugs, the JPE
assesses other important areas of inquiry. The JPE is specifically designed
for juvenile assessment. It provides the information needed for comprehensive
juvenile reinstatement screening.
Three ways to give
the JPE: The JPE can be administered in three different ways: 1.
Paper-pencil test booklet format, which is the most popular testing procedure. JPE
English and Spanish test booklets and answer sheets are available. 2. Tests
given directly on the computer screen. Some agencies dedicate computers
for JPE testing. And, 3. Human Voice Audio which is available in English or Spanish.
This involves a headset. The juvenile uses the up-down arrow keys. As the
juvenile goes from question to answer with the arrow keys, the question or
answer is highlighted on the monitor and concurrently read to the juvenile.
These three test administration modes are discussed in the "JPE: Orientation
and Training Manual." Each test administration mode has advantages and some
limitations. Behavior Data Systems offers these three test modes so test users
can select the administration mode that is optimally suited to their needs.
Assessment: Reading impaired juveniles represent 20+ percent of the
juveniles tested. This represents a serious problem to other assessment tests. In contrast,
Behavior Data Systems has developed an alternative for dealing with this
problem: Human Voice Audio.
Human Voice Audio:
Presentation of the JPE is in English and Spanish. Juveniles' passive
vocabularies are often greater than their active vocabularies. Hearing items
read out loud often helps reduce cultural and communication problems. This
administration mode requires earphones and simple instructions to orient the
juvenile to the up-down arrow keys on the computer keyboard. Human Voice Audio
is an alternative approach for screening reading impaired juveniles.
Behavior Data Systems encourages test users to delete juvenile names from
diskettes before they are returned to BDS. Once juvenile
names are deleted, they are gone and cannot be retrieved. Deleting juvenile
names does not delete demographics or test data, which is downloaded into the JPE database for subsequent
analysis. This proprietary name deletion procedure
involves a few keystrokes and insures juvenile confidentiality and compliance
with HIPAA (Federal Regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).
Test Data Input
Verification: Allows the person that inputs test data from the answer
sheet into the computer to verify the accuracy of their data input. In brief,
test data is input twice, and any inconsistencies between the first and second
data entries are highlighted until corrected. When the first and second data
entries match or are the same, the staff person can continue. This proprietary
Data Input Verification procedure is optional, yet strongly recommended by
Behavior Data Systems.
Training Manual: The "JPE: Orientation and Training Manual" (O&T
Manual) explains how the JPE works. It is a must-read for staff members that will be
using the JPE. O&T Manual content includes, but is not limited to, the
following: instructions for testing: an explanation of how scores are derived:
clarification of how court-related information is used: a description of
unique JPE features and much more.
Guide: Some computer operators want more information than others.
Consequently, Behavior Data Systems provides One-Page Quick Start, which
includes basic instructions for scoring JPE's, and a more comprehensive "JPE:
Computer Operating Guide." The Computer Operating Guide contains instructions
for using MS DOS as well as Windows software. This manual discusses hardware,
software, scoring, printing reports, unique program features and much more.
Staff Training: Behavior Data
Systems' staff members are available to participate in JPE training
programs conducted by statewide programs, departments and high volume agencies
in the United States. Sometimes, smaller volume providers get together for
collective (multiple providers) on-site training. Behavior Data Systems
typically participates in four-hour or six-hour JPE training sessions. This
training can include hands-on computer scoring, as desired. Behavior Data
Systems gives attendees certificates
attesting to their JPE training.
Staff training is also provided on Fridays at Behavior Data Systems'
Phoenix offices from 8:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. and from 1:30 p.m. to 4:30
p.m. These training sessions are free. To participate, contact Behavior
Data Systems at least ten days in advance. Participation is on a first call, first scheduled basis.
How to Order a Test:
are interested in ordering tests, please fill out the online order form
provided on the Order Form page. Current Behavior Data Systems customers can
write, call, fax or e-mail their orders to Behavior Data Systems. And if desired, they can
read the "Instructions for Current Customers" section on the
Order Form page and fill out the online form.
* * * * *
JUVENILE PRE-DISPOSITION EVALUATION EXAMPLE REPORT
Within 2½ minutes of data entry,
Juvenile Pre-Disposition Evaluation (JPE) reports are
scored and printed on-site. These reports summarize a lot of information in an
easily understood format. For example, these reports include a JPE profile
(graph), which summarizes scale scores at a glance. Also included are the attained
scale scores, an explanation of what each score means and specific
score-related recommendations. In addition, significant items (direct
admissions) are highlighted, and answers to a built-in interview (last
sequence of items) are presented. Emphasis is placed on generating meaningful
reports that are helpful and easily understood.