Behavior Data Systems
Assessment Tests and Interviews Reliable Computer Graded Assessment


Juvenile Substance Abuse Profile
Designed for Juvenile (Male & Female) Assessment

The Juvenile Substance Abuse Profile (JSAP) is designed for troubled youth (male and female) assessment in juvenile courts, screening programs, school systems, and treatment agencies. The JSAP has 116 items and takes 20 minutes to complete. It has five (5) measures (scales): 1. Truthfulness Scale, 2. Aggressiveness Scale, 3. Alcohol Scale, 4. Drug Scale, and 5. Stress Coping Abilities Scale. The JSAP is a quick, screening assessment instrument, or test.



** Juvenile Substance Abuse Profile **
  • Juvenile counseling and treatment intake testing
  • Juvenile probation (misdemeanor and felony) risk and needs assessment
  • Juvenile evaluation, counseling and treatment agencies
  • Troubled youth community correction assessment
  • Juvenile court screening and assessment


Five Scales (Measures)

The five, Juvenile Substance Abuse Profile (JSAP) scales are described as follows:

  1. Truthfulness Scale: Measures how open and truthful the juvenile was while completing the test. This scale identifies denial, problem minimization, and attempts to fake good.
  2. Aggressiveness Scale: Measures how outgoing, bold, and self-assertive the juvenile is. High levels of aggressiveness contribute to aggression. In extreme cases, the youth can violate the rights of others.
  3. Alcohol Scale: Measures the severity of alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol refers to beer, wine, and other liquors.
  4. Drug Scale: Measures the severity of illicit drug use and abuse. Drugs refer to marijuana, crack, LSD, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates and heroin.
  5. Stress Coping Abilities Scale: Measures how well the youth handles stress. High scores (at or above the 90th percentile) indicate the presence of identifiable, emotional or mental health problems.

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The Juvenile Substance Abuse Profile (JSAP) is a brief, easily administered, and automated (computer-scored) troubled youth assessment instrument. Test administration time is, on average, 20 minutes, and tests are computer-scored within 2½ minutes, on-site.

The JSAP was developed, specifically, for troubled youth substance (alcohol and other drugs) abuse assessment. Yet, it is much more than just another alcohol and drug test. In addition to evaluating alcohol and drugs, the JSAP measures the truthfulness of the youth being tested, quantifies aggressiveness, and establishes how well the youth handles stress. We now know that stress exacerbates emotional and mental health symptomatology. A high score is a non-introversive way to screen for emotional and mental health problems.

Why Use the JSAP?

Aggression, substance abuse, delinquency, and related problems have risen across the U.S. These statistics underscore the need for standardized and objective screening. Early detection of substance abuse and related problems facilitate quicker intervention and counseling, or treatment. This type of information, also, helps in deciding upon supervision, counseling, and treatment alternatives.

At one sitting, of approximately 20 minutes' duration, staff can acquire a vast amount of relevant information that can be used to help troubled youths straighten out their lives. As noted above, early problem identification facilitates timely intervention and improved outcome results.

Advantages of Screening

Screening or assessment instruments filter out youths with serious problems, who may require referral for a more comprehensive evaluation and/or treatment. This filtering system works as follows:

Risk Category Risk Range
Low Risk 0 - 39% 39%
Medium Risk 40 - 69% 30%
Problem Risk 70 - 89% 20%
Severe Problem 90 - 100% 11%

Reference to the above table shows that a problem is not identified until a scale score is at the 70th percentile, or higher. This procedure is eminently fair, and it avoids both extremes, i.e., over-identification and under-identification of problems.

A court, school, probation department, or agency's policy might refer youths with severe problems (11%) for further evaluation, or treatment services. In that case, 11% of the people screened (Severe Problem) would be referred. In this example, 89% of the youths screened would not be referred for additional and expensive services.

Budgetary savings (dollars) would be large, with no compromises in clients receiving appropriate evaluation and/or treatment services. Indeed, more youths would receive help. Without an objective and standardized screening program, there is usually more risk of over, or under-utilization of additional, professional services.

Test Booklets

JSAP test booklets are provided free. These booklets contain 116 items and are written at a 5th to 6th grade reading level. If a youth can read the newspaper, they can read the JSAP. And, JSAP test booklets are available in English and Spanish.


In brief, JSAP reports summarize the youth's self-reported history, explain what attained scale scores mean, and offer specific score-related recommendations.

Within 2½ minutes of test data entry, automated, (computer-scored) 3-page reports are printed on-site. These reports summarize a lot of helpful information in an easily understood format. For example, reports include a JSAP profile (graph), which summarizes scale scores at a glance. Also included are attained scale scores, an explanation of what each score means, and specific, score-related recommendations. In addition, significant items (direct admissions) are highlighted, and answers to multiple choice questions (last sequence of items) are presented. Emphasis is placed on having meaningful reports that are helpful and easily understood. To review an example JSAP report, click on the Example Report link.

Reliability and Validity

The JSAP has a proprietary, built-in database that insures inclusion of all administered tests, in a confidential (no names) manner. JSAP reliability and validity research is reported in the document titled, "JSAP: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." And, annual database analysis, further, demonstrates that JSAP scales have very high reliability and validity coefficients.

For example, the internal consistencies (coefficient alphas) for JSAP scales are reported in the following table for troubled youths (N=532) screened, in the year 2002. This is one among several research studies.


JSAP Scales Coefficient
Truthfulness Scale .86 p<.001
Aggressiveness Scale .86 p<.001
Alcohol Scale .89 p<.001
Drug Scale .89 p<.001
Stress Coping Abilities Scale .89 p<.001

All JSAP scales have alpha coefficients well above the professionally accepted standard of .75, and are highly reliable. All coefficient alphas are significant at the p<.001 level.

Several, troubled youth studies used several, validation methods. Early studies used criterion measures and were validated with other tests like the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) L-Scale and F-Scale, 16PF, Treatment Intervention Inventory-Juvenile, ACDI-Corrections Version II, etc. Much of the research is summarized in the document, "JSAP: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." Subsequent, discriminant validity and predictive validity database research supports JSAP reliability and validity.


The JSAP is available in Windows format. Windows diskettes require a one-time, computer setup procedure, after which JSAP data diskettes (25 or 50 test applications) are used to score and print reports on-site. Training manuals are provided, and new test users can be walked through these scoring procedures, over Behavior Data Systems, Ltd.'s (BDS) telephone line.

Proprietary, JSAP data diskettes contain 25 or 50 test applications. These 3½" diskettes score, interpret and print reports, on-site. Once a JSAP account is established ordered diskettes are mailed to users. Approximately, 97% of orders are filled and mailed back to users the same day they are received. When all test applications are used, diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems, where the test data is downloaded into the JSAP database, for subsequent database analysis. The proprietary, "delete names" program is activated by the test user, with a few keystrokes, to delete all the youths' names from diskettes, before they are returned. Deleting all juvenile names insures protection of each youth's confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).

The "JSAP: Orientation and Training Manual" explains how the JSAP works and should be read by staff. The "JSAP: Computer Operating Guide" explains how to score tests, print or store reports, and discusses other, unique, JSAP computer-related features.


The JSAP system contains a proprietary, built-in database. Earlier, it was noted that all JSAP used diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems, and the test data is downloaded into the JSAP database. This, expanding database allows ongoing research and testing program, summary features that were not possible before. Ongoing research insures quality control. Annual testing program summaries provide for program self-evaluation.

Built-in Database

The JSAP permits ongoing research and annual program summary -- at no additional cost. As discussed earlier, when the 25 or 50-test diskettes are used, the used diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems and downloaded into the expanding, JSAP database. Advantages of this proprietary database are many and include free, database research analysis and free, annual summary reports.

No personal information, names, social security numbers, etc. are ever downloaded into any test database.

In summary, all returned JSAP diskettes' test data is centrally filed in the JSAP database. This database has many advantages. Database analysis permits ongoing, cost-efficient research that includes scale alpha coefficients, ANOVA, frequency distributions, correlations, cross-tab statistics along with reliability, validity, and accuracy determinations. An example, summary report can be reviewed by clicking on the Annual Summary Report link.

After downloading test data, returned diskettes are destroyed.

Annual Summary Reports

Behavior Data Systems can access each of its tests' built-in databases, for statistical analysis and summarization of all tests administered in a year. Annual Summary Reports are prepared for state, department, agency and, even some, individual providers -- at no cost to them. These reports are provided as a professional courtesy to large volume test users. Summary reports include demographics, court-history when relevant, and test statistics (reliability, validity, and accuracy). Has anyone offered to summarize your testing program? Annually? At no additional cost to you? Minimum testing volume for annual reports is 350 tests. There is no maximum limit. Behavior Data Systems' annual reports range in size, from 350 tests to over 55,000 tests, annually. An example, Annual Summary Report can be viewed by clicking on this, Annual Summary Report link.

Staff Member Input

The JSAP is to be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment. When available, school and court records should be reviewed, as they can contain important information not provided, or incorrectly provided by the youth being tested. Experienced staff should also interview the client. For these reasons, the following statement is contained in each JSAP report: "Juvenile Substance Abuse Profile (JSAP) results are confidential and should be considered working hypotheses. No decision should be based, solely, upon these results. The JSAP is to be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment."

Unique JSAP Features

 Truthfulness Scale: Identifies denial, problem minimization, and faking. It is now known that many juveniles attempt to minimize their problems. A Truthfulness Scale is a necessary component in contemporary tests. The JSAP Truthfulness Scale has been validated with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), polygraph exams, other tests, truthfulness studies and experienced staff judgment. The JSAP Truthfulness Scale has been demonstrated to be reliable, valid, and accurate. In some respects, the JSAP Truthfulness Scale is similar to the MMPI's L and F-Scales. It consists of a number of items that most people agree, or disagree with.

Truth-Corrected Scores: Have proven to be very important for assessment accuracy. This proprietary, truth-correction process is comparable to the MMPI K-Scale correction. The JSAP Truthfulness Scale has been correlated with the other, four (4) scales. The Truth-Correction equation converts raw scores to Truth-Corrected scores. Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw scores. Raw scores reflect what the juvenile wants you to know. Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the juvenile is attempting to hide.

Aggressiveness Scale: Measures how outgoing, bold, and self-assertive the youth is. High levels of aggressiveness contribute to aggression. In extreme cases, the youth can violate the rights of others.

Stress Coping Abilities Scale: Measures how well the juvenile handles stress, tension, and pressure. And, we now know that stress exacerbates emotional and mental health symptomatology. This scale is a non-introversive way to screen for established, (diagnosable) mental health problems.

More than just another alcohol or drug test. In addition to alcohol and drugs, the JSAP assesses other important areas of inquiry like truthfulness, denial and faking, aggressiveness, emotional/mental health problems, etc. The JSAP is, specifically, designed for juvenile screening.

Three ways to give the JSAP. The JSAP can be administered in three different ways: 1. Paper-pencil test booklet format is the most popular testing procedure. JSAP English and Spanish test booklets and answer sheets are available. 2. Tests can be given directly on the computer screen. Some agencies dedicate computers for JSAP testing. And, 3. Human voice audio in English or Spanish is available. These three test administration modes are discussed in the "JSAP: Orientation and Training Manual." Each test administration mode has advantages and some limitations. Behavior Data Systems offers these three test modes so test users can select the administration mode that is optimally suited to their needs.

Reading Impaired Assessment: Reading impaired juveniles represent 20+ percent of the juveniles tested. This represents a serious problem to other juvenile tests. Behavior Data Systems has developed an alternative for dealing with this problem: Human Voice Audio.

Human Voice Audio: Presentation of the JSAP is in English and Spanish. Juveniles' passive vocabularies are often greater than their active vocabularies. Hearing items read out loud often helps reduce cultural and communication problems. This administration mode requires earphones and simple instructions to orient the juvenile to the up-down arrow keys on the computer keyboard. Human Voice Audio is an alternative approach for screening reading impaired juveniles.

Confidentiality: Behavior Data Systems encourages test users to delete juvenile names from diskettes before they are returned to Behavior Data Systems. Once juvenile names are deleted, they are gone and cannot be retrieved. Deleting juvenile names does not delete demographics or test data, which is downloaded into the JSAP database for subsequent analysis. This proprietary name deletion procedure involves a few keystrokes and insures juvenile confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).

Test Data Input Verification: Allows the person that inputs test data from the answer sheet into the computer to verify the accuracy of their data input. In brief, test data is input twice, and any inconsistencies between the first and second data entries are highlighted until corrected. When the first and second data entries match or are the same, the staff person can continue. This proprietary Data Input Verification procedure is optional, yet strongly recommended by Behavior Data Systems.

Inventory of Scientific Findings: Much of the JSAP research has been gathered together in a document titled "JSAP: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." This document summarizes JSAP research chronologically -- as the studies were completed. This chronological reporting format was established largely because of the JSAP database, which permits annual database analysis of all tests administered.

Staff Training: Behavior Data Systems' staff is available to participate in JSAP training sessions conducted by statewide programs, departments and high volume agencies in the United States. Sometimes, smaller volume providers get together for collective (multiple providers) on-site training. Behavior Data Systems typically participates in 4-hour or 6-hour JSAP training sessions. This training can include hands-on computer scoring, as desired. Behavior Data Systems gives attendees certificates attesting to their JSAP training.

Staff training is also provided on Fridays at Behavior Data Systems' Phoenix offices from 8:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. or from 1:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. These training sessions are free. To participate, contact Behavior Data Systems at least ten days in advance. Participation is on a first call, first scheduled basis.

Test Unit Fee (Cost): JSAP cost information can be reviewed by clicking on the Test Unit Fee (JSAP Cost) link. There is only the one charge, and that is the test unit fee. Everything else is included at no additional cost. This includes test booklets, answer sheets, training manuals, upgrades, ongoing database research, annual summary reports, staff training and support services. Behavior Data Systems' test unit fee is very affordable.

Free Examination Kit: A 1-test demonstration diskette is available on a 30-day cost free basis. Demo diskettes are in Windows format. The Examination Kit includes a 1-test demo diskette, installation CD (with instructions), test booklet, answer sheet and some descriptive materials. Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. does want the test booklet and diskette returned within 30 days.

Support Services: Behavior Data Systems provides a full range of support services. These services include e-mail, fax and telephone availability, provision of test-related information, telephone walk through assistance, staff training and test consultation. Support services and test-related materials are provided free.

Selecting a Juvenile Assessment Instrument or Test

If you are selecting a screening instrument or test for juveniles, the following Comparison Checklist should prove helpful. It lists important screening test qualities. The "Other" column represents any other test you might want to compare to the JSAP.

Designed Specifically for Juveniles Yes  
Reliability and Validity Research Provided Yes  
Test Completed in 20 Minutes Yes  
Reports within 2½ Minutes On-Site Yes  
Truthfulness Scale to Detect Minimization and Faking Yes  
Truth-Corrected Scores for Accuracy Yes  
Three Test Administration Options Yes  
     1. Paper-Pencil (English and Spanish) Yes  
     2. On Computer Screen (English and Spanish) Yes  
     3. Human Voice Audio (English and Spanish) Yes  
Delete Client Names (insures confidentiality) Program Yes  
HIPAA (federal regulation) Compliant Yes  
Test Data Input Verification (insures accuracy) Program Yes  
Available in English and Spanish Yes  
Built-in Database at No Additional Cost Yes  
Alcohol and Drugs Scales Yes  
Aggressiveness Scale Yes  
Stress Coping Abilities Scale Yes  
Helpful Score-Related Reports Yes  
ASAM Compatible Recommendations Yes  
Staff Training (Free) Yes  
Examination Kits (Free) Yes  
Very Affordable Test Unit Fee Yes  


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The Juvenile Substance Abuse Profile utilizes a 3-page outline or format that is highly individualized. An example, JSAP report follows.

Juvenile Substance Abuse Profile reports summarize the youth's self-reported history, explain what attained scale scores mean, and offer, specific, score-related recommendations. Within 2½ minutes of test data entry, automated, (computer-scored) 3-page reports are printed on-site.

Additional information can be provided, upon request, by writing:
Behavior Data Systems, Ltd.
P.O. Box 44256
Phoenix, Arizona 85064-4256

Our telephone number is (602) 234-3506.
Our fax number is (602) 266-8227.
And our e-mail address is

Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. Copyright © 2014. All Rights Reserved.

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