Five Scales (Measures)
The five, Juvenile Substance Abuse Profile (JSAP) scales are described as follows:
- Truthfulness Scale:
Measures how open and truthful the juvenile was while completing the test.
This scale identifies denial, problem minimization, and attempts to fake good.
- Aggressiveness Scale:
Measures how outgoing, bold, and self-assertive the juvenile is. High
levels of aggressiveness contribute to aggression. In extreme cases, the
youth can violate the rights of others.
- Alcohol Scale:
Measures the severity of alcohol use and abuse.
Alcohol refers to beer, wine, and other liquors.
- Drug Scale:
the severity of illicit drug use and abuse. Drugs refer to marijuana,
crack, LSD, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates and heroin.
- Stress Coping Abilities Scale:
Measures how well the youth handles stress. High scores (at or above the
90th percentile) indicate the presence of identifiable,
emotional or mental health problems.
* * * * *
The Juvenile Substance Abuse Profile (JSAP)
is a brief, easily administered, and automated (computer-scored) troubled youth
assessment instrument. Test administration time is, on average, 20 minutes, and
tests are computer-scored within 2½ minutes, on-site.
The JSAP was developed, specifically, for
troubled youth substance (alcohol and other drugs) abuse assessment. Yet, it
is much more than just another alcohol and drug test. In addition to
evaluating alcohol and drugs, the JSAP measures the truthfulness of the youth
being tested, quantifies aggressiveness, and establishes how well the youth
handles stress. We now know that stress exacerbates emotional and mental
health symptomatology. A high score is a non-introversive way to screen for
emotional and mental health problems.
Why Use the JSAP?
Aggression, substance abuse, delinquency,
and related problems have risen across the U.S. These statistics underscore
the need for standardized and objective screening. Early detection of
substance abuse and related problems facilitate quicker intervention and
counseling, or treatment. This type of information, also, helps in deciding upon
supervision, counseling, and treatment alternatives.
At one sitting, of approximately 20
minutes' duration, staff can acquire a vast amount of relevant information
that can be used to help troubled youths straighten out their lives. As noted
above, early problem identification facilitates timely intervention and
improved outcome results.
Advantages of Screening
Screening or assessment instruments
filter out youths with serious problems, who may require referral for a more
comprehensive evaluation and/or treatment. This filtering system works as follows:
Reference to the above table shows that
a problem is not identified until a scale score is at the 70th
percentile, or higher. This procedure is eminently fair, and it avoids both
extremes, i.e., over-identification and under-identification of problems.
A court, school, probation department, or
agency's policy might refer youths with severe problems (11%) for further
evaluation, or treatment services. In that case, 11% of the people screened
(Severe Problem) would be referred. In this example, 89% of the youths screened
would not be referred for additional and expensive services.
Budgetary savings (dollars) would be
large, with no compromises in clients receiving appropriate evaluation and/or
treatment services. Indeed, more youths would receive help. Without an
objective and standardized screening program, there is usually more risk of
over, or under-utilization of additional, professional services.
JSAP test booklets are provided free.
These booklets contain 116 items and are written at a 5th to 6th
grade reading level. If a youth can read the newspaper, they can read the JSAP.
And, JSAP test booklets are available in English and Spanish.
In brief, JSAP reports summarize the youth's self-reported history, explain what attained scale
scores mean, and offer specific score-related recommendations.
Within 2½ minutes of test data entry,
automated, (computer-scored) 3-page reports are printed on-site. These reports
summarize a lot of helpful information in an easily understood format. For
example, reports include a JSAP profile (graph), which summarizes scale scores
at a glance. Also included are attained scale scores, an explanation of what
each score means, and specific, score-related recommendations. In addition,
significant items (direct admissions) are highlighted, and answers to
multiple choice questions (last sequence of items) are presented. Emphasis is placed
on having meaningful reports that are helpful and easily understood. To review
an example JSAP report, click on the
Example Report link.
Reliability and Validity
The JSAP has a proprietary, built-in
database that insures inclusion of all administered tests, in a confidential
(no names) manner. JSAP reliability and validity research is reported in the
document titled, "JSAP: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." And, annual
database analysis, further, demonstrates that JSAP scales have very high
reliability and validity coefficients.
For example, the internal consistencies
(coefficient alphas) for JSAP scales are reported in the following table for
troubled youths (N=532) screened, in the year 2002. This is one among several research studies.
All JSAP scales have alpha coefficients
well above the professionally accepted standard of .75, and are highly
reliable. All coefficient alphas are significant at the p<.001 level.
Several, troubled youth studies used
several, validation methods. Early studies used criterion measures and were
validated with other tests like the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
L-Scale and F-Scale, 16PF, Treatment Intervention Inventory-Juvenile,
ACDI-Corrections Version II, etc. Much of the research is summarized in the
document, "JSAP: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." Subsequent, discriminant
validity and predictive validity database research supports JSAP reliability and validity.
The JSAP is available in Windows format. Windows
diskettes require a one-time, computer setup procedure, after which JSAP data
diskettes (25 or 50 test applications) are used to score and print reports
on-site. Training manuals are provided, and new test users can be walked
through these scoring procedures, over Behavior Data Systems, Ltd.'s (BDS) telephone line.
Proprietary, JSAP data diskettes contain
25 or 50 test applications. These 3½" diskettes score, interpret and
print reports, on-site. Once a JSAP account is established ordered diskettes
are mailed to users. Approximately, 97% of orders are filled and mailed back to
users the same day they are received. When all test applications are used,
diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems, where the test data is downloaded into the JSAP
database, for subsequent database analysis. The proprietary, "delete names"
program is activated by the test user, with a few keystrokes, to delete all the
youths' names from diskettes, before they are returned. Deleting all juvenile
names insures protection of each youth's confidentiality and compliance with
HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).
The "JSAP: Orientation and Training
Manual" explains how the JSAP works and should be read by staff. The "JSAP:
Computer Operating Guide" explains how to score tests, print or store reports,
and discusses other, unique, JSAP computer-related features.
The JSAP system contains a proprietary,
built-in database. Earlier, it was noted that all JSAP used diskettes are
returned to Behavior Data Systems, and the test data is downloaded into the JSAP database. This,
expanding database allows ongoing research and testing program, summary
features that were not possible before. Ongoing research insures quality
control. Annual testing program summaries provide for program self-evaluation.
The JSAP permits ongoing research and
annual program summary -- at no additional cost. As discussed earlier, when the
25 or 50-test diskettes are used, the used diskettes are returned to Behavior
Data Systems and downloaded into the expanding, JSAP database. Advantages of this
proprietary database are many and include free, database research analysis and
free, annual summary reports.
No personal information, names, social security numbers, etc. are ever downloaded into any
In summary, all returned JSAP diskettes'
test data is centrally filed in the JSAP database. This database has many
advantages. Database analysis permits ongoing, cost-efficient research that
includes scale alpha coefficients, ANOVA, frequency distributions,
correlations, cross-tab statistics along with reliability, validity, and
accuracy determinations. An example, summary report can be reviewed by clicking
Annual Summary Report link.
After downloading test data, returned diskettes are destroyed.
Annual Summary Reports
Behavior Data Systems can access each of its tests' built-in databases, for statistical analysis and
summarization of all tests administered in a year. Annual Summary Reports are prepared for state,
department, agency and, even some, individual providers -- at no cost to them. These reports are provided
as a professional courtesy to large volume test users. Summary reports include demographics,
court-history when relevant, and test statistics (reliability, validity, and accuracy). Has anyone offered
to summarize your testing program? Annually? At no additional cost to you? Minimum testing volume for
annual reports is 350 tests. There is no maximum limit. Behavior Data Systems' annual reports range in size,
from 350 tests to over 55,000 tests, annually. An example, Annual Summary Report can be viewed by clicking
Annual Summary Report link.
Staff Member Input
The JSAP is to be used in conjunction
with experienced staff judgment. When available, school and court records
should be reviewed, as they can contain important information not provided, or
incorrectly provided by the youth being tested. Experienced staff should also
interview the client. For these reasons, the following statement is contained
in each JSAP report: "Juvenile Substance Abuse Profile (JSAP) results are
confidential and should be considered working hypotheses. No decision should
be based, solely, upon these results. The JSAP is to be used in conjunction with
experienced staff judgment."
Unique JSAP Features
Identifies denial, problem minimization, and faking. It is now known that many
juveniles attempt to minimize their problems. A Truthfulness Scale is a
necessary component in contemporary tests. The JSAP Truthfulness Scale has
been validated with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI),
polygraph exams, other tests, truthfulness studies and experienced staff
judgment. The JSAP Truthfulness Scale has been demonstrated to be reliable,
valid, and accurate. In some respects, the JSAP Truthfulness Scale is similar
to the MMPI's L and F-Scales. It consists of a number of items that most
people agree, or disagree with.
Scores: Have proven to be very important for assessment accuracy. This
proprietary, truth-correction process is comparable to the MMPI K-Scale
correction. The JSAP Truthfulness Scale has been correlated with the other, four (4)
scales. The Truth-Correction equation converts raw scores to Truth-Corrected
scores. Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw scores. Raw scores
reflect what the juvenile wants you to know. Truth-Corrected scores reveal
what the juvenile is attempting to hide.
Scale: Measures how outgoing, bold, and self-assertive the youth is.
High levels of aggressiveness contribute to aggression. In extreme cases, the
youth can violate the rights of others.
Abilities Scale: Measures how well the juvenile handles stress, tension,
and pressure. And, we now know that stress exacerbates emotional and mental
health symptomatology. This scale is a non-introversive way to screen for
established, (diagnosable) mental health problems.
More than just another alcohol or drug
test. In addition to alcohol and drugs, the JSAP assesses other important
areas of inquiry like truthfulness, denial and faking, aggressiveness,
emotional/mental health problems, etc. The JSAP is, specifically, designed for juvenile screening.
Three ways to give
the JSAP. The JSAP can be administered in three different ways:
1. Paper-pencil test booklet format is the most popular testing procedure. JSAP
English and Spanish test booklets and answer sheets are available.
can be given directly on the computer screen. Some agencies dedicate computers
for JSAP testing. And,
3. Human voice audio in English or Spanish is
available. These three test administration modes are discussed in the "JSAP:
Orientation and Training Manual." Each test administration mode has advantages
and some limitations. Behavior Data Systems offers these three test modes so test users can
select the administration mode that is optimally suited to their needs.
Assessment: Reading impaired juveniles represent 20+ percent of the
juveniles tested. This represents a serious problem to other juvenile tests.
Behavior Data Systems has developed an alternative for dealing with this problem: Human Voice Audio.
Human Voice Audio:
Presentation of the JSAP is in English and Spanish. Juveniles' passive
vocabularies are often greater than their active vocabularies. Hearing items
read out loud often helps reduce cultural and communication problems. This
administration mode requires earphones and simple instructions to orient the
juvenile to the up-down arrow keys on the computer keyboard. Human Voice Audio
is an alternative approach for screening reading impaired juveniles.
Confidentiality: Behavior Data
Systems encourages test users to delete juvenile names from diskettes before they
are returned to Behavior Data Systems. Once juvenile names are deleted, they are gone and cannot
be retrieved. Deleting juvenile names does not delete demographics or test
data, which is downloaded into the JSAP database for subsequent analysis. This
proprietary name deletion procedure involves a few keystrokes and insures juvenile confidentiality
and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).
Test Data Input
Verification: Allows the person that inputs test data from the answer
sheet into the computer to verify the accuracy of their data input. In brief,
test data is input twice, and any inconsistencies between the first and second
data entries are highlighted until corrected. When the first and second data
entries match or are the same, the staff person can continue. This
proprietary Data Input Verification procedure is optional, yet strongly
recommended by Behavior Data Systems.
Inventory of Scientific Findings: Much of the JSAP research has been gathered
together in a document titled "JSAP: An Inventory of Scientific Findings."
This document summarizes JSAP research chronologically -- as the studies were
completed. This chronological reporting format was established largely because
of the JSAP database, which permits annual database analysis of all tests administered.
Behavior Data Systems' staff is available to participate in JSAP training sessions conducted by
statewide programs, departments and high volume agencies in the United States.
Sometimes, smaller volume providers get together for collective (multiple
providers) on-site training. Behavior Data Systems typically participates in 4-hour or 6-hour JSAP training
sessions. This training can include hands-on computer scoring,
as desired. Behavior Data Systems gives attendees certificates attesting to their JSAP training.
Staff training is also provided on Fridays at Behavior Data Systems' Phoenix offices from 8:30 a.m. to
11:30 a.m. or from 1:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. These training sessions are free. To participate, contact
Behavior Data Systems at least ten days in advance. Participation is on a first call, first scheduled basis.
Test Unit Fee (Cost): JSAP cost information can be reviewed by clicking on the
Test Unit Fee (JSAP Cost) link. There is only
the one charge, and that is the test unit fee. Everything else is included at no additional cost. This
includes test booklets, answer sheets, training manuals, upgrades, ongoing database research, annual
summary reports, staff training and support services. Behavior Data Systems' test unit fee is very affordable.
Free Examination Kit:
A 1-test demonstration diskette is available on a 30-day cost free basis. Demo diskettes are in
Windows format. The Examination Kit includes a 1-test demo diskette, installation CD (with instructions),
test booklet, answer sheet and some descriptive materials. Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. does want the
test booklet and diskette returned within 30 days.
Behavior Data Systems provides a full range of support services. These services include e-mail,
fax and telephone availability, provision of test-related information,
telephone walk through assistance, staff training and test consultation.
Support services and test-related materials are provided free.
Selecting a Juvenile Assessment Instrument or Test
If you are selecting a screening
instrument or test for juveniles, the following Comparison Checklist should
prove helpful. It lists important screening test qualities. The "Other" column
represents any other test you might want to compare to the JSAP.