Behavior Data Systems
Assessment Tests and Interviews Reliable Computer Graded Assessment


Treatment Intervention Inventory - Juvenile

The Treatment Intervention Inventory (TII-Juvenile) evolved from the Treatment Intervention Inventory (TII). It is the juvenile (14 - 18 years) version of the TII. The TII-Juvenile has 143 items and takes 25 minutes to complete. It has nine scales (measures): 1. Truthfulness Scale, 2. Anxiety Scale, 3. Depression Scale, 4. Self-Esteem Scale, 5. Distress Scale, 6. Family Issues Scale, 7. Alcohol Scale, 8. Drug Scale, and 9. Stress Coping Abilities Scale. If you're looking for a test to screen juveniles (male and female) for attitudinal, emotional, and substance (alcohol and other drugs) abuse problems, we recommend the TII-Juvenile.

** TII-Juvenile **
  • EAP, HMO, and agency referral.
  • Counseling and treatment program intake.
  • Juvenile evaluation, assessment and screening.

  • Juvenile court assessment.
  • Juvenile substance abuse evaluation.

Nine TII-Juvenile Scales (Measures)

  1. Truthfulness Scale: Measures the youth's truthfulness while completing the TII-Juvenile. This scale identifies denial, problem minimization, and attempts to fake good.
  2. Anxiety Scale: Measures nervousness, apprehension and somatic correlates of anxiety. This score varies, directly, with experienced symptoms. Adolescence has been characterized as the "age of anxiety."
  3. Depression Scale: Measures dejected and self-depreciating emotional states that vary from normal to pathological. Melancholy, unhappiness, and dysphoria are included in this definition of depression.
  4. Self-Esteem Scale: Reflects a person's, explicit, valuing and appraisal of self. It incorporates an attitude of acceptance-approval versus rejection-disapproval of self.
  5. Distress Scale: Measures experienced pain, worry, sorrow, and suffering. Distress can involve both, mental and physical pain. Distress is one of the most common reasons troubled youths seek help.
  6. Family Issues Scale: Measures family issues, problems, and concerns. The juvenile rates their own, family relationships. Family refers to parents, siblings, and other residents of the home.
  7. Alcohol Scale: Measures the severity of alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol is a licit substance. Alcohol refers to beer, wine, and other substances.
  8. Drug Scale: Measures the severity of illicit drug use and abuse. Drugs refer to marijuana, crack, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates, and heroin.
  9. Stress Coping Abilities Scale: Measures how well a youth handles anxiety and perceived pressure. Stress exacerbates emotional and mental health symptomatology. Consequently, a Stress Coping Abilities Scale score at the 90th percentile (or above) indicates the presence of an established, mental health (DSM-IV) problem.

* * * * *

Two Versions of the TII

The Treatment Intervention Inventory (TII) is the adult version or TII. Click on the following link, to go to the TII webpage.

The TII-Juvenile is the juvenile version of the TII. This is the TII-Juvenile webpage.

* * * * *

Why Use the TII-Juvenile?

TII-Juvenile results can be used in counseling and treatment, program intake assessment or for screening and referral, as warranted. The TII-Juvenile provides an objective and standardized assessment of the youth tested. It can be administered as a screening and referral test, at program intake, at follow-up intervals of 30 days or more, and at counseling or treatment completion.

The TII-Juvenile has many advantages over an interview. For example, it is a test with demonstrated reliability, validity, and accuracy. It has been standardized on troubled youth. Its Truthfulness Scale, Truth-Corrected scores, expanding database, annual testing program summary, and ongoing database research are very, desirable features of this test. In contrast, interviews are subjective, because interviewers must repeat, paraphrase, and probe for acceptable answers.

The TII-Juvenile was developed, specifically, for troubled youth screening. These screenings can occur at HMO, EAP, and social services' offices, to help determine appropriate referral alternatives. The TII-Juvenile can, also, be administered at counseling or treatment program intake, at 30-day intervals, (minimum) thereafter, or prior to program completion.

It's a fact that early, problem identification facilitates timely intervention, treatment, and improved outcome results. There are many key points in juvenile rehabilitation. First, problems need to be identified and, when present, the youth needs to be referred for help. TII-Juvenile results help in deciding, upon appropriate referrals, the type of treatment needed and the level of care that is warranted.

At one sitting of approximately, 25 minutes' duration, staff can acquire a vast amount of helpful information that can influence subsequent intervention and treatment recommendations. And, as noted earlier, early problem identification facilitates timely referral and treatment.

Advantages of Screening

Screening or assessment instruments filter out individuals with serious problems, who may require referral for help. This filtering system works as follows:

Risk Category Risk Range
Low Risk 0 - 39% 39%
Medium Risk 40 - 69% 30%
Problem Risk 70 - 89% 20%
Severe Problem 90 -100% 11%

Reference to the above table shows that a problem is not identified until a scale score is at the 70th percentile, or higher. These risk range percentiles are calculated on the youths who have completed the TII-Juvenile. This procedure is fair and avoids extremes, such as over-identification and under-identification of problems.

A department, agency, program, or mental health professional might refer youths, with serious problems, for further evaluation, counseling or treatment. In this case (Severe Problem), 11% of the youths screened would be referred. In this example, 89% of the youths screened would not be referred for additional and, often, unnecessary services.

Budgetary savings (dollars) would be large, with no compromises in juveniles receiving appropriate evaluation and treatment services. Indeed, more juveniles would receive help. Without a screening program, there is usually more risk of over, or under-utilization of additional, professional services.

TII-Juvenile Test Booklet

TII-Juvenile test booklets are provided free. These booklets contain 143 items and are written at a 5th to 6th grade reading level. If a person can read the newspaper, they can read the TII-Juvenile test booklet.


In brief, TII-Juvenile reports summarize the youth's self-report history, explain what attained scale scores mean, and offer, specific, score-related recommendations.

Within 2 minutes of test data computer entry, automated, (computer-scored) three-page reports are printed on-site. These reports summarize a lot of information in an easily understood format. For example, reports include a TII-Juvenile profile (graph), which summarizes scale scores, at a glance. Also included are attained, scale score paragraphs, an explanation of what each score means and, specific, score-related recommendations. In addition, significant items (direct admissions) are highlighted, and answers, to a built-in interview (last sequence of items) are presented. Emphasis is placed on having meaningful reports that are helpful and easily understood.

An example TII-Juvenile report is presented at the end of this webpage. To go directly to this example report, click on the TII-Juvenile Example Report link.

Reliability and Validity

The TII-Juvenile has a proprietary, built-in database that insures collection, of all tests administered, in a confidential (no names) manner. These reliability and validity statistics are reported in the document titled, "TII: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." Annual database analysis further demonstrates that TII-Juvenile scales have very high, reliability and validity coefficients.

The inter-item reliability (alpha) coefficients for the nine, TII-Juvenile scales are presented in the table below. All scales are highly reliable. All of the reliability coefficient alphas, for all TII-Juvenile scales, were at or above 0.85. These results demonstrate that the TII-Juvenile is a very reliable, juvenile assessment test.

Truthfulness Scale .85 p<.001
Anxiety Scale .85 p<.001
Depression Scale .87 p<.001
Alcohol Scale .86 p<.001
Drug Scale .87 p<.001
Distress Scale .85 p<.001
Self-Esteem Scale .90 p<.001
Stress Coping Abilities Scale .92 p<.001

NOTE: The Family Issues Scale is not a measurement scale and is not included in this analysis.

All, TII-Juvenile scales are highly reliable. All, alpha coefficients are well above the professionally accepted standard of .75. These results, clearly, demonstrate that the TII-Juvenile is a reliable test.

Early, TII-Juvenile validation studies involved other tests that measured the same thing. The criterion group studies are reported in the document titled , "TII: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." Subsequent, database research, further supports the validity of the TII-Juvenile.

TII-Juvenile Scales Correct Problem Identification
Alcohol Scale 100%
Drug Scale 100%
Anxiety Scale 100%
Depression Scale 100%
Distress Scale 96.7%

In summary, all nine(9), TII-Juvenile scales are highly reliable. And, validity analysis demonstrated that the TII-Juvenile closely approximate predicted percentages. It's reasonable to conclude that the TII-Juvenile is a reliable, valid and accurate test.

A TII-Juvenile research study is presented at the end of this webpage. To go directly to this study, click on this TII-Juvenile Research Study link.


The TII-Juvenile is available in MS-DOS and Windows. MS-DOS diskettes contain all their own software. Windows diskettes require a one-time computer setup procedure after which TII-Juvenile data (25 or 50 test applications) diskettes are used to score and print reports. Training manuals are provided and new test users can be walked through these procedures over Behavior Data Systems, Ltd.'s (BDS) telephone line.

Proprietary TII-Juvenile data diskettes contain 25 or 50 test applications. These 3½" diskettes score, interpret and print TII-Juvenile reports on-site. Once a TII-Juvenile account is established, ordered diskettes are mailed to users. Approximately 97% of orders are filled and mailed back to users the day they are received. When all test applications on a diskette are used, these diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems where the test data is downloaded into the TII-Juvenile database.

The proprietary "delete names" program is activated by the test user with a few keystrokes to delete all names from diskettes before they are returned to Behavior Data Systems. Deleting all the youths' names insures client confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).

The "TII: Orientation and Training Manual" explains how the TII-Juvenile works and should be read by staff. The "TII: Computer Operating Guide" explains how to score tests, print or store reports and discusses other unique TII-Juvenile computer-related features. These manuals are provided free to TII-Juvenile users.


The TII-Juvenile system contains a proprietary built-in database. Earlier, it was noted that all used TII-Juvenile diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems, and their test data is downloaded into the TII-Juvenile database. This expanding database allows ongoing research and testing program summary -- features that were not possible before. To review a free summary report click on the Annual Summary Report link.

In summary, all returned TII-Juvenile diskettes' test data is centrally filed at Behavior Data Systems' offices in the TII-Juvenile database. This database has many advantages. Database analysis permits ongoing cost efficient research that includes scale alpha coefficients, ANOVA, frequency distributions, correlations, cross-tab statistics along with reliability, validity and accuracy determinations. And, annual testing program summary provides a vehicle for program evaluation. To review TII-Juvenile research report click on the TII-Juvenile Research Study link.

Annual Summary Reports

Behavior Data Systems can access each of its tests' built-in databases for statistical analysis and summarization of all tests administered in a year. Annual Summary Reports are prepared for state, department, agency and even some individual providers -- at no cost to them. These reports are provided as a professional courtesy to large volume test users. Summary reports include demographics, court-history when relevant, and test statistics (reliability, validity and accuracy). Has anyone offered to summarize your testing program? Annually? At no additional cost to you? Minimum testing volume for annual reports is 350 tests. There is no maximum limit. Behavior Data Systems' annual reports range in size from 350 tests to over 55,000 tests annually. An example Annual Summary Report can be viewed by clicking on this Annual Summary Report link.

Staff Member Input

The TII-Juvenile is to be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment. Experienced staff should interview the juvenile being tested. For these reasons, the following statement is contained in each TII-Juvenile report: "TII-Juvenile results are confidential and should be considered working hypotheses. No diagnosis or decision should be based solely upon these results. Use only with experienced staff judgment."

Unique TII-Juvenile Features

Truthfulness Scale: Identifies denial, problem minimization and faking. It is now known that many juveniles attempt to minimize their problems. A Truthfulness Scale is a necessary component in contemporary tests. The TII-Juvenile Truthfulness Scale has been validated with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), polygraph exams, other tests, truthfulness studies and experienced staff judgment. The TII-Juvenile Truthfulness Scale has been demonstrated to be reliable, valid and accurate. In some respects, the TII-Juvenile Truthfulness Scale is similar to the MMPI's L and F-Scales. It consists of a number of items that most people agree or disagree with.

Truth-Corrected Scores: Have proven to be very important for assessment accuracy. This proprietary truth correction process is comparable to the MMPI's K-Scale correction. The TII-Juvenile Truthfulness Scale has been correlated with the other 5 scales. The Truth Correction equation converts raw scores to Truth-Corrected scores. Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw scores. Raw scores reflect what the juvenile wants you to know. Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the juvenile is attempting to hide.

Stress Coping Abilities Scale: Measures how well the juvenile handles stress, tension and pressure. And, we now know that stress exacerbates emotional and mental health symptomatology. This scale is a non-introversive way to screen for established (diagnosable) mental health problems. A person scoring at or above the 90th percentile on the Stress Coping Abilities Scale should be referred to a certified mental health professional for a more comprehensive evaluation, diagnosis and treatment plan. This important area of inquiry is missed by many other assessment tests.

More than just another alcohol or drug test. In addition to alcohol and drugs, the TII-Juvenile assesses other important areas of inquiry like truthfulness, denial and faking, family issues, emotional/mental health problems, etc. The TII-Juvenile is specifically designed for juvenile screening.

Three ways to give the TII-Juvenile. The TII-Juvenile can be administered in three different ways: 1. Paper-pencil test booklet format is the most popular testing procedure. TII-Juvenile English and Spanish test booklets and answer sheets are available. 2. Tests can be given directly on the computer screen. Some agencies dedicate computers for TII-Juvenile testing. And, 3. Human voice audio in English or Spanish is available. These three test administration modes are discussed in the "TII: Orientation and Training Manual." Each test administration mode has advantages and some limitations. Behavior Data Systems offers these three test modes so test users can select the administration mode that is optimally suited to their needs.

Reading Impaired Assessment: Reading impaired juveniles represent 20+ percent of the juveniles tested. This represents a serious problem to other treatment tests. Behavior Data Systems has developed an alternative for dealing with this problem: Human Voice Audio.

Human Voice Audio: Presentation of the TII-Juvenile is in English and Spanish. Juveniles' passive vocabularies are often greater than their active vocabularies. Hearing items read out loud often helps reduce cultural and communication problems. This administration mode requires earphones and simple instructions to orient the juvenile to the up-down arrow keys on the computer keyboard. Human Voice Audio is an alternative approach for screening reading impaired juveniles.

Confidentiality: Behavior Data Systems encourages test users to delete juvenile names from diskettes before they are returned to Behavior Data Systems. Once juvenile names are deleted, they are gone and cannot be retrieved. Deleting juvenile names does not delete demographics or test data, which is downloaded into the TII-Juvenile database for subsequent analysis. This proprietary name deletion procedure involves a few keystrokes and insures juvenile confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).

Test Data Input Verification: Allows the person that inputs test data from the answer sheet into the computer to verify the accuracy of their data input. In brief, test data is input twice, and any inconsistencies between the first and second data entries are highlighted until corrected. When the first and second data entries match or are the same, the staff person can continue. This proprietary Data Input Verification procedure is optional, yet strongly recommended by Behavior Data Systems.

Inventory of Scientific Findings: Much of the TII-Juvenile research has been gathered together in a document titled "TII: An Inventory of Scientific Findings ." This document summarizes TII-Juvenile research chronologically -- as the studies were completed. This chronological reporting format was established largely because of the TII-Juvenile database, which permits annual database analysis of all tests administered.

Staff Training: Behavior Data Systems' staff is available to participate in TII-Juvenile training programs conducted by statewide programs, departments and high volume agencies in the United States. Sometimes, smaller volume providers get together for collective (multiple providers) on-site training. Behavior Data Systems typically participates in 4-hour or 6-hour TII-Juvenile training sessions. This training can include hands-on computer scoring, as desired. Behavior Data Systems gives attendees certificates attesting to their TII-Juvenile training.

Staff training is also provided on Fridays at Behavior Data Systems' Phoenix offices from 8:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. or from 1:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. These training sessions are free. To participate, contact Behavior Data Systems at least ten days in advance. Participation is on a first call, first scheduled basis.

Test Unit Fee (Cost): TII-Juvenile cost information can be reviewed by clicking on the Test Unit Fee (Cost) link. There is only the one cost or charge, and that is the test unit fee. Everything else is included at no additional cost to the test user. This includes test booklets, answer sheets, training manuals, upgrades, ongoing database research, annual summary testing reports, staff training, and support services. Do not be misled by some test publishers' á la carte pricing like separate costs for each test administration as well as for each of the test-related items listed above. Instead of asking for the test administration cost, ask for the total cost involved in using a test. We believe Behavior Data Systems' one test unit fee is very affordable.

Free Examination Kit: A 1-test demonstration diskette is available on a 30-day cost free basis. Demo diskettes are in Windows format. The Examination Kit includes a 1-test demo diskette, installation CD (with instructions), test booklet, answer sheet and some descriptive materials. Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. does want the test booklet and diskette returned within 30 days.

How to Proceed: To become a licensed Behavior Data Systems test user, click on the User Agreement link, click on the Print Client User License button and fax the completed form to (602) 266-8227, or mail your completed form to Behavior Data Systems. Upon its receipt by Behavior Data Systems, you become a licensed Behavior Data Systems user and can order tests. Established or Behavior Data Systems-licensed test users can reorder tests by mail, telephone, fax or e-mail.

Other related links are listed for reference. They are available as needed.

    Test Unit Fee (Cost) webpage link. Explains Behavior Data Systems' Test Unit Fees or Costs.
    New Client Order webpage link. Explains steps to become a "new Behavior Data Systems client."
    How to Order webpage link. Explains how Behavior Data Systems tests can be ordered.

Additional information can be provided upon request. Contact Behavior Data Systems, Ltd., P.O. Box 44256, Phoenix, Arizona 85064-4828. Behavior Data Systems' telephone number is (602) 234-3506, our fax number is (602) 266-8227 and our e-mail address is

Support Services: Behavior Data Systems provides a full range of support services. These services include e-mail, fax and telephone availability, provision of test-related information, telephone walk through assistance, staff training and test consultation. Support services and test-related materials are provided free.

Selecting a Juvenile Screening and Referral or Intake Test

If you are selecting a screening and referral and/or intake screening test for juveniles, the following Comparison Checklist should prove helpful. It lists important screening test qualities. The "Other" column represents any other test you might want to compare to the TII-Juvenile.

Designed Specifically for TII Yes  
Test Reliability & Validity Research Provided Yes  
Test Completed in 35 Minutes Yes  
On-Site Reports within 3 Minutes Yes  
Truthfulness Scale to Detect Faking Yes  
Truth-Corrected Scores for Accuracy Yes  
Three Test Administration Options Yes  
  1. Paper-Pencil (English and Spanish) Yes  
  2. On Computer Screen (English and Spanish) Yes  
  3. Human Voice Audio (English and Spanish) Yes  
Delete Juveniles Names (insures confidentiality) Yes  
HIPAA (federal regulation) Compliant Yes  
Test Data Input Verification (insures accuracy) Yes  
Available in English and Spanish Yes  
Built-in Database At No Additional Cost Yes  
Alcohol and Drugs Scales Yes  
Suicide Scale Yes  
Self-Esteem Scale Yes  
Violence (Lethality) Scale Yes  
Distress Scale Yes  
Stress Coping Abilities Scale Yes  
Easily Understood and Helpful Reports Yes  
ASAM Compatible Recommendations Yes  
Staff Training (Free) Yes  
Examination Kits (Free) Yes  
Very Affordable Test Unit Fee Yes  

Treatment Intervention Inventory - Juvenile

* * * * *

Example TII-Juvenile Report

TII-Juvenile reports summarize a lot of important information in an easily understood format. For example, reports include a TII-Juvenile profile (graph), which summarizes scale scores at a glance. Also included are attained scale score paragraphs, an explanation of what each score means and specific score-related recommendations. In addition, significant items (direct admissions) are highlighted, and answers to a built-in interview (last sequence of items) are presented. Emphasis is placed on having meaningful reports that are helpful and easily understood.

The TII-Juvenile report summarizes a lot of important youth information in an easily read and understood format.  Experienced TII-Juvenile users can look at the TII-Juvenile Profile (on the first page of the report) and quickly understand the juveniles profile or scoring pattern.  The second page of this report explains what the youths attained scores mean and provides realistic score related recommendations.  The third page of the report summarizes "significant items" (direct admissions) and the clients "multiple choice" (items (132-143) answers.  Space is also provided for staff recommendations, signature, and date.

Additional information can be provided, upon request, by writing:
Behavior Data Systems, Ltd.
P.O. Box 44256
Phoenix, Arizona 85064-4256

Our telephone number is (602) 234-3506.
Our fax number is (602) 266-8227.
And our e-mail address is

Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. Copyright © 2014. All Rights Reserved.

* * * * *