The Treatment Intervention Inventory (TII-Juvenile)
evolved from the Treatment Intervention Inventory (TII). It is the juvenile (14
- 18 years) version of the TII. The TII-Juvenile has 143 items and takes 25
minutes to complete. It has nine scales (measures): 1.
Truthfulness Scale, 2. Anxiety
Scale, 3. Depression
Self-Esteem Scale, 5. Distress
Scale, 6. Family Issues Scale,
7. Alcohol Scale, 8.
Drug Scale, and 9.
Stress Coping Abilities Scale. If you're looking for a test to screen
juveniles (male and female) for attitudinal, emotional, and substance (alcohol
and other drugs) abuse problems, we recommend the TII-Juvenile.
** TII-Juvenile **
EAP, HMO, and agency referral.
Counseling and treatment program intake.
Juvenile evaluation, assessment and screening.
Juvenile court assessment.
Juvenile substance abuse evaluation.
Nine TII-Juvenile Scales (Measures)
Measures the youth's truthfulness while completing the TII-Juvenile.
This scale identifies denial, problem minimization, and attempts to fake good.
Measures nervousness, apprehension and somatic correlates of anxiety. This
score varies, directly, with experienced symptoms. Adolescence has been
characterized as the "age of anxiety."
Measures dejected and self-depreciating emotional states that vary from normal
to pathological. Melancholy, unhappiness, and dysphoria are included in this
definition of depression.
Reflects a person's, explicit, valuing and appraisal of self. It incorporates an
attitude of acceptance-approval versus rejection-disapproval of self.
Measures experienced pain, worry, sorrow, and suffering. Distress can involve
both, mental and physical pain. Distress is one of the most common reasons
troubled youths seek help.
Family Issues Scale:
Measures family issues, problems, and concerns. The juvenile rates their own,
family relationships. Family refers to parents, siblings, and other residents of
Measures the severity of alcohol use and abuse. Alcohol is a licit substance.
Alcohol refers to beer, wine, and other substances.
Measures the severity of illicit drug use and abuse. Drugs refer to marijuana,
crack, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates, and heroin.
Stress Coping Abilities Scale:
Measures how well a youth handles anxiety and perceived pressure. Stress
exacerbates emotional and mental health symptomatology. Consequently, a Stress
Coping Abilities Scale score at the 90th percentile (or above)
indicates the presence of an established, mental health (DSM-IV) problem.
* * * * *
Two Versions of the TII
Treatment Intervention Inventory (TII)
is the adult version or TII. Click on the following link, to go to the
is the juvenile version of the TII. This is the TII-Juvenile webpage.
* * * * *
Why Use the TII-Juvenile?
TII-Juvenile results can be used in counseling and treatment, program intake
assessment or for screening and referral, as warranted. The TII-Juvenile
provides an objective and standardized assessment of the youth tested. It can
be administered as a screening and referral test, at program intake, at
follow-up intervals of 30 days or more, and at counseling or treatment
The TII-Juvenile has many advantages over an interview. For example, it is a
test with demonstrated reliability, validity, and accuracy. It has been
standardized on troubled youth. Its Truthfulness Scale, Truth-Corrected
scores, expanding database, annual testing program summary, and ongoing
database research are very, desirable features of this
test. In contrast, interviews
are subjective, because interviewers must repeat, paraphrase, and probe for
The TII-Juvenile was developed, specifically, for troubled youth screening. These
screenings can occur at HMO, EAP, and social services' offices, to help determine
appropriate referral alternatives. The TII-Juvenile can, also, be administered at
counseling or treatment program intake, at 30-day intervals, (minimum)
thereafter, or prior to program completion.
It's a fact that early, problem identification facilitates timely intervention,
treatment, and improved outcome results. There are many key points in juvenile
rehabilitation. First, problems need to be identified and, when present, the
youth needs to be referred for help. TII-Juvenile results help in deciding, upon
appropriate referrals, the type of treatment needed and the level of care that
At one sitting of approximately, 25 minutes' duration, staff can acquire a vast
amount of helpful information that can influence subsequent intervention and
treatment recommendations. And, as noted earlier, early problem identification
facilitates timely referral and treatment.
Advantages of Screening
Screening or assessment instruments filter out individuals with serious problems,
who may require referral for help. This filtering system works as follows:
TII-JUVENILE RISK RANGES
40 - 69%
70 - 89%
Reference to the above table shows that a problem is not identified until a
scale score is at the 70th percentile, or higher. These risk range
percentiles are calculated on the youths who have completed the TII-Juvenile.
This procedure is fair and avoids extremes, such as over-identification and
under-identification of problems.
A department, agency, program, or mental health professional might refer youths,
with serious problems, for further evaluation, counseling or treatment. In this
case (Severe Problem), 11% of the youths screened would be referred. In this
example, 89% of the youths screened would not be referred for additional and,
often, unnecessary services.
Budgetary savings (dollars) would be
large, with no compromises in juveniles receiving appropriate evaluation and
Indeed, more juveniles would receive help. Without a screening program, there
is usually more risk of over, or under-utilization of additional, professional
TII-Juvenile Test Booklet
TII-Juvenile test booklets are provided free. These booklets contain 143 items
and are written at a 5th to 6th grade reading level. If a
person can read the newspaper, they can read the TII-Juvenile test booklet.
In brief, TII-Juvenile reports summarize the youth's self-report history,
explain what attained scale scores mean, and offer, specific, score-related
Within 2 minutes of test data computer entry, automated, (computer-scored)
three-page reports are printed on-site. These reports summarize a lot of
information in an easily understood format. For example, reports include a
TII-Juvenile profile (graph), which summarizes scale scores, at a glance. Also
included are attained, scale score paragraphs, an explanation of what each score
means and, specific, score-related recommendations. In addition, significant
items (direct admissions) are highlighted, and answers, to a built-in interview
(last sequence of items) are presented. Emphasis is placed on having meaningful
reports that are helpful and easily understood.
An example TII-Juvenile report is presented at the end of this webpage. To go
directly to this example report, click on the TII-Juvenile Example Report link.
Reliability and Validity
The TII-Juvenile has a proprietary, built-in database that insures collection, of
all tests administered, in a confidential (no names) manner. These reliability
and validity statistics are reported in the document titled, "TII: An Inventory
of Scientific Findings." Annual database analysis further demonstrates that
TII-Juvenile scales have very high, reliability and validity coefficients.
The inter-item reliability (alpha) coefficients for the nine, TII-Juvenile scales
are presented in the table below. All scales are highly reliable. All of the
reliability coefficient alphas, for all TII-Juvenile scales, were at or above
0.85. These results demonstrate that the TII-Juvenile is a very reliable,
juvenile assessment test.
NOTE: The Family Issues Scale is not a measurement scale and is not included in
All, TII-Juvenile scales are highly reliable. All, alpha coefficients are well
above the professionally accepted standard of .75. These results, clearly,
demonstrate that the TII-Juvenile is a reliable test.
Early, TII-Juvenile validation studies involved other tests that measured the
same thing. The criterion group studies are reported in the document titled ,
"TII: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." Subsequent, database research,
further supports the validity of the TII-Juvenile.
TII-JUVENILE ACCURACY (N=760, 2002)
Correct Problem Identification
In summary, all nine(9), TII-Juvenile scales are highly reliable. And, validity
analysis demonstrated that the TII-Juvenile closely approximate predicted
percentages. It's reasonable to conclude that the TII-Juvenile is a reliable,
valid and accurate test.
A TII-Juvenile research study is presented at the end of this webpage. To go
directly to this study, click on this TII-Juvenile Research Study
The TII-Juvenile is available in MS-DOS and Windows. MS-DOS diskettes contain
all their own software. Windows diskettes require a one-time computer setup
procedure after which TII-Juvenile data (25 or 50 test applications) diskettes
are used to score and print reports. Training manuals are provided and new
test users can be walked through these procedures over Behavior Data Systems,
Ltd.'s (BDS) telephone line.
Proprietary TII-Juvenile data diskettes contain 25 or 50 test applications.
These 3½" diskettes score, interpret and print TII-Juvenile reports on-site.
Once a TII-Juvenile account is established, ordered diskettes are mailed to
users. Approximately 97% of orders are filled and mailed back to users the day
they are received. When all test applications on a diskette are used, these
diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems where
the test data is downloaded into the TII-Juvenile database.
The proprietary "delete names" program is activated by the test user with a few
keystrokes to delete all names from diskettes before they are returned to
Behavior Data Systems. Deleting all the youths' names insures client
confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R.
The "TII: Orientation and Training Manual" explains how the TII-Juvenile works
and should be read by staff. The "TII: Computer Operating Guide" explains how
to score tests, print or store reports and discusses other unique TII-Juvenile
computer-related features. These manuals are provided free to TII-Juvenile
The TII-Juvenile system contains a proprietary built-in database. Earlier, it
was noted that all used TII-Juvenile diskettes are returned to Behavior
Data Systems, and their test data is downloaded into the
TII-Juvenile database. This expanding database allows ongoing research and
testing program summary -- features that were not possible before. To review a
free summary report click on the Annual Summary Report link.
In summary, all returned TII-Juvenile diskettes' test data is centrally filed at
Behavior Data Systems' offices in the TII-Juvenile database. This
database has many advantages. Database analysis permits ongoing cost efficient
research that includes scale alpha coefficients, ANOVA, frequency
distributions, correlations, cross-tab statistics along with reliability,
validity and accuracy determinations. And, annual testing program summary
provides a vehicle for program evaluation. To review TII-Juvenile research
report click on the TII-Juvenile Research Study
Annual Summary Reports
Behavior Data Systems can access each of its tests'
built-in databases for statistical analysis and summarization of all tests
administered in a year. Annual Summary Reports are prepared for state,
department, agency and even some individual providers -- at no cost to them.
These reports are provided as a professional courtesy to large volume test
users. Summary reports include demographics, court-history when relevant, and
test statistics (reliability, validity and accuracy). Has anyone offered to
summarize your testing program? Annually? At no additional cost to you? Minimum
testing volume for annual reports is 350 tests. There is no maximum limit.
Behavior Data Systems' annual reports range in size from 350 tests
to over 55,000 tests annually. An example Annual Summary Report can be viewed
by clicking on this Annual Summary Report link.
Staff Member Input
The TII-Juvenile is to be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment.
Experienced staff should interview the juvenile being tested. For these
reasons, the following statement is contained in each TII-Juvenile report:
"TII-Juvenile results are confidential and should be considered working
hypotheses. No diagnosis or decision should be based solely upon these results.
Use only with experienced staff judgment."
Unique TII-Juvenile Features
Truthfulness Scale:Identifies denial, problem minimization and
faking. It is now known that many juveniles attempt to minimize their problems.
A Truthfulness Scale is a necessary component in contemporary tests. The
TII-Juvenile Truthfulness Scale has been validated with the Minnesota
Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), polygraph exams, other tests,
truthfulness studies and experienced staff judgment. The TII-Juvenile
Truthfulness Scale has been demonstrated to be reliable, valid and accurate. In
some respects, the TII-Juvenile Truthfulness Scale is similar to the MMPI's L
and F-Scales. It consists of a number of items that most people agree or
Have proven to be very important for assessment accuracy. This proprietary
truth correction process is comparable to the MMPI's K-Scale correction. The
TII-Juvenile Truthfulness Scale has been correlated with the other 5 scales.
The Truth Correction equation converts raw scores to Truth-Corrected scores.
Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw scores. Raw scores reflect
what the juvenile wants you to know. Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the
juvenile is attempting to hide.
Stress Coping Abilities Scale:
Measures how well the juvenile handles stress, tension and pressure. And, we
now know that stress exacerbates emotional and mental health symptomatology.
This scale is a non-introversive way to screen for established (diagnosable)
mental health problems. A person scoring at or above the 90th percentile
on the Stress Coping Abilities Scale should be referred to a certified mental
health professional for a more comprehensive evaluation, diagnosis and
treatment plan. This important area of inquiry is missed by many other
More than just another alcohol or drug
In addition to alcohol and drugs, the TII-Juvenile assesses other important
areas of inquiry like truthfulness, denial and faking, family issues,
emotional/mental health problems, etc. The TII-Juvenile is specifically
designed for juvenile screening.
Three ways to give the TII-Juvenile.
The TII-Juvenile can be administered in three different ways:
Paper-pencil test booklet format is the most popular testing procedure.
TII-Juvenile English and Spanish test booklets and answer sheets are available.
Tests can be given directly on the computer screen. Some agencies dedicate
computers for TII-Juvenile testing. And,
Human voice audio in English or Spanish is available. These three test
administration modes are discussed in the "TII: Orientation and Training
Manual." Each test administration mode has advantages and some limitations.
Behavior Data Systems offers these three test modes so test users
can select the administration mode that is optimally suited to their needs.
Reading Impaired Assessment:
Reading impaired juveniles represent 20+ percent of the juveniles tested. This
represents a serious problem to other treatment tests. Behavior
Data Systems has developed an alternative for dealing with this
Human Voice Audio.
Human Voice Audio:
Presentation of the TII-Juvenile is in English and Spanish. Juveniles'
passive vocabularies are often greater than their active vocabularies. Hearing
items read out loud often helps reduce cultural and communication problems.
This administration mode requires earphones and simple instructions to orient
the juvenile to the up-down arrow keys on the computer keyboard. Human Voice
Audio is an alternative approach for screening reading impaired juveniles.
Behavior Data Systems encourages test users to delete
juvenile names from diskettes before they are returned to Behavior
Data Systems. Once juvenile names are deleted, they are gone and
cannot be retrieved. Deleting juvenile names does not delete demographics or
test data, which is downloaded into the TII-Juvenile database for subsequent
analysis. This proprietary name deletion procedure involves a few keystrokes
and insures juvenile confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal
regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).
Test Data Input Verification:
Allows the person that inputs test data from the answer sheet into the
computer to verify the accuracy of their data input. In brief, test data is
input twice, and any inconsistencies between the first and second data entries
are highlighted until corrected. When the first and second data entries match
or are the same, the staff person can continue. This proprietary Data Input
Verification procedure is optional, yet strongly recommended by Behavior
Inventory of Scientific Findings:
Much of the TII-Juvenile research has been gathered together in a document
titled "TII: An Inventory of Scientific
Findings ." This document summarizes TII-Juvenile research
chronologically -- as the studies were completed. This chronological reporting
format was established largely because of the TII-Juvenile database, which
permits annual database analysis of all tests administered.
Behavior Data Systems' staff is available to
participate in TII-Juvenile training programs conducted by statewide programs,
departments and high volume agencies in the United States. Sometimes, smaller
volume providers get together for collective (multiple providers) on-site
training. Behavior Data Systems typically
participates in 4-hour or 6-hour TII-Juvenile training sessions. This training
can include hands-on computer scoring, as desired. Behavior Data
Systems gives attendees certificates attesting to their TII-Juvenile
Staff training is also provided on Fridays at Behavior Data
Systems' Phoenix offices from 8:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. or from 1:30
p.m. to 4:30 p.m. These training sessions are free. To participate, contact
Behavior Data Systems at least ten days in advance. Participation is
on a first call, first scheduled basis.
Test Unit Fee (Cost):
TII-Juvenile cost information can be reviewed by clicking on the Test Unit Fee (Cost) link. There is only the one cost
or charge, and that is the test unit fee. Everything else is included at no
additional cost to the test user. This includes test booklets, answer sheets,
training manuals, upgrades, ongoing database research, annual summary testing
reports, staff training, and support services. Do not be misled by some test
publishers' á la carte pricing like separate costs for each test administration
as well as for each of the test-related items listed above. Instead of asking
for the test administration cost, ask for the total cost involved in using a
test. We believe Behavior Data Systems' one test unit
fee is very affordable.
Free Examination Kit:
A 1-test demonstration diskette is available on a 30-day cost free basis. Demo
diskettes are in Windows format. The Examination Kit includes a 1-test demo
diskette, installation CD (with instructions), test booklet, answer sheet and
some descriptive materials. Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. does want the test
booklet and diskette returned within 30 days.
How to Proceed:
To become a licensed Behavior Data Systems test
user, click on the User Agreement link, click on the
Print Client User License
button and fax the completed form to
(602) 266-8227, or mail your
completed form to Behavior Data Systems. Upon its
receipt by Behavior Data Systems, you become a
licensed Behavior Data Systems user and can order
tests. Established or Behavior Data Systems-licensed
test users can reorder tests by mail, telephone, fax or e-mail.
Other related links are listed for reference. They are available as needed.
Test Unit Fee (Cost) webpage link. Explains
Behavior Data Systems' Test Unit Fees or Costs. New Client Order webpage link. Explains steps to
become a "new Behavior Data Systems client." How to Order webpage link. Explains how
Behavior Data Systems tests can be ordered.
Additional information can be provided upon request. Contact Behavior
Data Systems, Ltd., P.O. Box 44256, Phoenix, Arizona 85064-4828.
Behavior Data Systems' telephone number is
(602) 234-3506, our fax number
and our e-mail address is
Behavior Data Systems provides a full range of
support services. These services include e-mail, fax and telephone
availability, provision of test-related information, telephone walk through
assistance, staff training and test consultation. Support services and
test-related materials are provided free.
Selecting a Juvenile Screening and Referral or
If you are selecting a screening and referral and/or intake screening test for
juveniles, the following Comparison Checklist should prove helpful. It lists
important screening test qualities. The "Other" column represents any other
test you might want to compare to the TII-Juvenile.
TII-Juvenile reports summarize a lot of important information in an easily
understood format. For example, reports include a TII-Juvenile profile (graph),
which summarizes scale scores at a glance. Also included are attained scale
score paragraphs, an explanation of what each score means and specific
score-related recommendations. In addition, significant items (direct
admissions) are highlighted, and answers to a built-in interview (last sequence
of items) are presented. Emphasis is placed on having meaningful reports
that are helpful and easily understood.
The TII-Juvenile report summarizes a lot of important youth information in an
easily read and understood format. Experienced TII-Juvenile users can
look at the TII-Juvenile Profile (on the first page of the report) and quickly
understand the juveniles profile or scoring pattern. The second page of
this report explains what the youths attained scores mean and provides
realistic score related recommendations. The third page of the report
summarizes "significant items" (direct admissions) and the clients "multiple
choice" (items (132-143) answers. Space is also provided for staff
recommendations, signature, and date.
Additional information can be provided, upon request, by writing:
Behavior Data Systems, Ltd.
P.O. Box 44256 Phoenix, Arizona 85064-4256
Our telephone number is (602) 234-3506.
Our fax number is (602) 266-8227.
And our e-mail address is