The Reinstatement Review Inventory-II, or
is a test designed to screen applicants applying for reinstatement of their
drivers' licenses after it was suspended or revoked. The RRI-II consists of
128 items and takes 25 minutes to complete. It has six scales (measures):
1. Truthfulness Scale,
2. Alcohol Scale,
3. Drugs Scale,
4. Comparative Change Scale,
5. Intervention Checklist Scale and
Stress Coping Abilities Scale.
The RRI-II is different. The RRI-II
explores the question "Has the applicant changed since their driver's
license was suspended or revoked?"
Reinstatement Review Inventory-II
Screening applicants applying for reinstatement of their suspended
or revoked driver's license.
Departmental screening, agency evaluators and community mental
health professionals, applicant assessment for driver's license reinstatement.
Six RRI-II Scales (Measures)
Truthfulness Scale: Measures how
truthful the applicant was while completing the RRI-II. This scale
identifies problem minimization, denial and attempts to fake good.
Alcohol Scale: Measures the
applicant's use and/or abuse of alcohol. The term alcohol refers to beer,
wine or other liquor.
Drugs Scale: Measures illicit drug
use and abuse. Drugs refer to marijuana, cocaine, crack, amphetamines,
barbiturates and heroin.
Comparative Change Scale: Helps
identify applicants who have experienced positive attitudinal and
behavioral change since their drivers' licenses were suspended or revoked.
Intervention Checklist Scale:
Clarifies the applicant's status in terms of meeting requirements for
reinstatement of their driver's license. Have they only completed minimum
requirements? Or, have they demonstrated a sincere commitment to change?
Stress Coping Abilities Scale:
Measures how well the applicant handles stress, pressure and anxiety. We
now know that stress exacerbates emotional and mental health problems.
* * * * *
Why Have a Test for Driver's
Because the information needed to decide whether or not
to reinstate a suspended or revoked driver's license is in many ways unique.
Has the applicant changed since their driver's license was suspended or
revoked? Does the applicant have an alcohol or drug problem? Does the
applicant have emotional or attitudinal problems that could overwhelm their
stress coping abilities? Has the applicant made a sincere commitment to
positive responsible change? Questions asked before driver's license
reinstatement go beyond just alcohol and drug use.
It is assumed that a state reviews an applicant's court
and driving history prior to reinstating a revoked or suspended driver's
license. It is also assumed that somebody interviews the applicant. Is this
enough? Considering the serious responsibilities and potential consequences
associated with driver's license reinstatement, many people don't think so.
Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. (BDS) interviewed people working in driver's license
reinstatement programs in three states, and not one person was satisfied with
their reinstatement procedures. When asked what they were looking for, the
overwhelming majority said, "Some indication that the applicant had
positively changed since their driver's license was suspended or revoked."
When asked how they made this determination, almost all just laughed or
shrugged their shoulders.
Two RRI Versions (RRI and RRI-II)
The RRI-II is discussed on this webpage. For comparison,
the Reinstatement Review Inventory (RRI) is briefly discussed. The RRI has
124 items and takes 25 minutes to complete. The RRI has six scales
(measures): 1. Truthfulness Scale,
2. Road Rage Scale, 3. Alcohol
Scale, 4. Drugs Scale,
5. Comparative Change Scale
and 6. The Intervention Checklist. Interested parties should
decide between the RRI (has a Road Rage Scale) and the RRI-II (replaced Road
Rage Scale with the Stress Coping Abilities Scale). If you would like more
information on the RRI, click on this
How Should the RRI-II Be Used?
The RRI-II should be used in conjunction with a review of
available driving records, an interview with the applicant and experienced staff judgment.
How Can You tell if The Applicant Was Truthful?
The RRI-II has a built-in Truthfulness Scale that
identifies defensiveness, denial, problem minimization and attempts to fake
good. It would be naïve to assume that all applicants answer questions
truthfully. And, without a reliable, valid and accurate Truthfulness Scale, many staff are deceived.
Advantages of Screening
Screening or assessment instruments filter out
individuals with problems that may require more assistance and help. This
filtering system works as follows:
RRI-II RISK RANGES
Risk Range Percentile
0 - 39%
40 - 69%
70 - 89%
Reference to the above table shows that a problem is not
identified until a scale score is at the 70th percentile or
higher. These risk range percentiles are based upon applicants that have
completed the RRI-II. This procedure is fair and avoids extremes, i.e.,
over-identification and under-identification of problems.
Using the above table, only applicants with severe
problems (11% of applicants screened) might be referred for additional
services. In this example, 89 percent (contingent
upon adopted policy) of the applicants screened would not be referred for
additional (and often unnecessary as well as expensive) services. Savings
(dollars) could be large with no compromises in applicants being made aware
of their problems and needs. Indeed, it is likely that more
applicants would receive needed help. Without a screening program, there is
usually more risk of over or under-utilization of additional services. And,
nobody wants to reinstate a driver's license to an applicant who then has a
DUI accident and kills somebody.
RRI-II test booklets are provided free. These booklets
contain 128 items and are written at a 5th to 6th
grade reading level. If a person can read the newspaper, they can read the RRI-II.
In brief, RRI-II reports summarize the applicant's
answers in a concise 3-page report. The RRI-II profile (graph) summarizes
RRI-II findings at a glance. Each scale score is summarized in a paragraph
that presents the applicant's score, explains what that score means and
provides score-related recommendations. Significant items (admissions and
unusual answers) are printed for staff review. In addition, applicant
answers to the multiple choice (items 119 to 128) are printed for
* * * * *
Staff often wants quick reference
of RRI-II results. To meet this need, test results are summarized at the top
of the first page of the report. These summary statements are as follows:
INVALID TEST RESULTS.
This summary statement means that RRI-II results are distorted due to
defensiveness, denial, problem minimization or attempts to fake good.
MEETS REINSTATEMENT CRITERIA.
This statement means RRI-II test results meet established reinstatement
criteria. RRI-II results indicate it would be appropriate to reinstate the
applicant's driver's license. However, we emphasize no reinstatement
decision should be based solely on RRI-II results.
EXCEEDS REINSTATEMENT CRITERIA.
This statement means RRI-II results reflect serious problems. This statement
pertains only to RRI-II results.
* * *
Link to RRI-II Example Report
An RRI-II example report is presented at the end of this webpage. If you want to go directly to this
report, click on the Example Report link. You
might check the top right of the first page of the example report to see how
the RRI-II quick reference summary statements look.
How to Review RRI-II Reports
1. Check the
RRI-II Summary Statement. These statements were described earlier. They are presented in the top
right of the first page of the RRI-II report. For example, MEETS REINSTATEMENT CRITERIA is printed in a
box in the example RRI-II report.
2. Review the RRI-II Profile.
This RRI-II profile (graph) is on the first page of the RRI-II report. It
summarizes scale scores at a glance. The RRI-II profile presents each RRI-II
scale by name, obtained percentile score and graphical presentation of scores.
3. Scale Score Summary Paragraphs. Attained scale scores
are presented and explained along with score-related recommendations. The
paragraphs are contained on page 2 and the top of page 3 in the RRI-II report.
4. Significant Items.
These are direct admissions or unusual answers to the Alcohol Scale and
Drugs Scale. When no significant items apply, this is stated in the RRI-II report.
The last sequence of items in the RRI-II (items 119 to 128) represent
multiple choice items. Each of these multiple choice items has four answers
to choose from, and the answers selected are printed in the RRI-II report.
6. Other sources of information.
The RRI-II is to be used in conjunction with a review of the applicant's
driving records, an interview and experienced staff judgment.
* * * * *
Everybody seems to have their own approach to data
gathering. The above suggestions are simply that -- suggestions. All
Behavior Data Systems asks is that the
empirically based information contained in RRI-II reports be considered in
the overall decision making process.
Reliability and Validity
Early research used criterion measures, and the RRI-II was validated
with other tests, e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) L
and F-Scales, 16PF, Treatment Intervention Inventory, etc. Subsequently,
database analysis based studies further support RRI-II reliability and
validity. To review RRI-II research, click on the
Study link. Another research study link is presented at the end of this webpage.
The RRI-II has a proprietary built-in database that
insures inclusion of all administered tests in a confidential (no names)
manner. Annual database analysis further demonstrates that the RRI-II is a
reliable and valid test.
The inter-item reliability (alpha) coefficients for the
six RRI-II scales are presented below. There were 249 participants who
completed the RRI-II. All scales were highly reliable. All of the alpha
reliability coefficients for all RRI-II scales were at or above 0.85. These
results demonstrate that the RRI-II is a reliable test.
RRI-II RELIABILITY (N=249, 2001)
Stress Coping Abilities Scale
All RRI-II scales have alpha coefficients above the professionally
accepted standard of .75 and are highly reliable. And, all coefficient
alphas are significant at the p<.001 level.
Relationships between RRI and RRI-II scales
The RRI-II is a revised version of the RRI, but some of the scales
remained the same or changed very little. These scales are: Alcohol, Drugs,
Comparative Change and Intervention Checklist. For the RRI-II, the
Truthfulness Scale was redone, the Road Rage Scale was dropped and the
Stress Coping Abilities Scale was added. Pearson Product-Moment correlation
coefficients between RRI scale scores and RRI-II scale scores for the four
similar scales are presented in the table below.
498 APPLICANTS (2002) CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS
r = .99
r = .99
r = .97
r = .83
Two different samples of applicants were used in this correlation
analysis, and each applicant took only the RRI or the RRI-II. To test the
correlation between scale scores, the data for each scale was sorted in
ascending order. This type of correlation was used because different
respondents took different tests. But, because the scales and respondents
were similar (applicants for reinstatement), the correlations are
meaningful. There were 498 applicants included in this analysis (249
for each test). Such high correlation coefficients demonstrate that RRI and
RRI-II scales essentially measure the same thing.
The RRI-II is available in Windows format. Windows diskettes require a
one-time setup procedure after which RRI-II data diskettes (25 or 50 test
applications) are used to score and print reports on-site. Training manuals
are provided free, and new test users can be walked through these scoring
and printing procedures over the telephone.
RRI-II data diskettes contain 25 or 50 test applications.
These 3½" diskettes score, interpret and print reports on-site. Once
an RRI-II account is established, ordered diskettes are mailed to users.
Approximately 97% of orders are filled and mailed back to users the same
day. When all test applications on a diskette are used, these diskettes are
returned to Behavior Data Systems where demographics and test data are
downloaded into the RRI-II database for subsequent database analysis and research.
The proprietary "delete names"
program is activated by the test user with a few keystrokes to delete all
applicants' names from the diskette before they are returned to Behavior
Data Systems. Deleting
all applicant names insures protection of each applicant's confidentiality
and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).
The RRI-II system contains a proprietary built-in
database. Earlier, it was noted that all RRI-II used diskettes are returned
to Behavior Data Systems, and the test data is downloaded into the expanding RRI-II database.
This database allows ongoing research and testing program summary features
that were not possible before. Ongoing research insures quality control.
Annual testing program summaries provide program self-evaluation. And, both
of these services are provided free.
No personal information, names, social security numbers, etc. are ever downloaded into any test
The RRI-II permits ongoing research
and annual program summary -- at no additional cost (meaning free). As
discussed earlier, when the 25 or 50-test diskettes are used, these used
diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems, checked for viruses and downloaded into the expanding
RRI-II database. Advantages of this proprietary database are many and include database
research analysis and annual testing program summary reports.
Returned diskettes can be summarized on a state,
department or agency basis -- at no additional cost to test users. Annual
summary reports provide information that permit testing program review.
In summary, all returned RRI-II diskettes are centrally
filed at Behavior Data Systems' offices in the RRI-II database. This database has many
advantages. Database analysis permits ongoing cost efficient research that
includes scale alpha coefficients, ANOVA, frequency distributions,
correlations, cross-tab statistics along with reliability, validity and accuracy determinations.
After downloading test data returned diskettes are destroyed.
Annual Summary Reports
Behavior Data Systems can access each of its
tests' built-in databases for statistical analysis and summarization of all
tests administered in a year. Annual Summary Reports are prepared
for state, department, agency and even some individual providers -- at no
cost to them. These reports are provided as a professional courtesy
to large volume test users. Summary reports include demographics,
court-history when relevant, and test statistics (reliability, validity
and accuracy). Has anyone offered to summarize your testing program?
Annually? At no additional cost to you? Minimum testing volume for
annual reports is 350 tests. There is no maximum limit. Behavior Data
Systems' annual reports range in size from 350 tests to over 55,000 tests annually.
An Annual Summary Report can be viewed by clicking on this
Annual Summary Report link.
Staff Member Input
The RRI-II is to be used in conjunction with experienced
staff judgment. When available, driving records should be reviewed.
Experienced staff should also interview the applicant. For these reasons,
the following statement is contained in each RRI-II report: "RRI-II results
are confidential and should be considered working hypotheses. No diagnosis
or decision should be based solely upon RRI-II results. The RRI-II is to be
used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment."
Selecting a Reinstatement Review Test
If you are selecting a reinstatement assessment instrument, the following
Comparison Checklist should prove helpful. It lists important screening test
qualities. The "Other" column represents any other test you might want to
compare to the RRI-II.
TEST COMPARISON CHECKLIST
Designed Specifically for Reinstatement Evaluation
Test Reliability and Validity Research Provided
Test Completed in 25 Minutes
On-Site Reports within 3 Minutes
Truthfulness Scale to Detect Faking
Truth-Corrected Scores for Accuracy
Three Test Administration Options
1. Paper-Pencil (English and Spanish)
2. On Computer Screen (English and Spanish)
3. Human Voice Audio (English and Spanish)
Delete Client Names (insures confidentiality)
HIPAA (federal regulation) Compliant
Test Data Input Verification (insures accuracy)
Available in English and Spanish
Built-in Database at No Additional Cost
Alcohol and Drugs Scales
Stress Coping Abilities Scale
Intervention Checklist Scale
Comparative Change Scale
Annual Summary Report -- Free
Concise Summary Report Statement
Easily Understood Reports
Staff Training -- Free
Examination Kits -- Free
Very Affordable Test Unit Fee
In summary, the RRI-II is different. It does explore the
question "Has the applicant changed since their driver's license was
suspended or revoked?" Each RRI-II scale represents important areas of
inquiry when deciding whether to reinstate a person's driver's license after
it has been suspended or revoked. RRI-II reports summarize the applicant's
self-reported information, explain what attained scale scores mean and
provide score-related recommendations. Behavior Data Systems' staff
is not aware of any other test that has been designed specifically for
applicants applying for reinstatement of their suspended or revoked driver's license.
Identifies denial, problem minimization and faking. It is now known that
most applicants attempt to minimize their problems. A Truthfulness Scale is
a necessary component in contemporary tests. The RRI-II Truthfulness Scale
has been demonstrated to be reliable, valid and accurate.
Have proven to be very important for assessment accuracy. This proprietary
truth correction process is comparable to the MMPI K-Scale correction. The
RRI-II Truthfulness Scale has been correlated with the other 5 scales. The
Truth Correction equation converts raw scores to Truth-Corrected scores.
Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw scores. Raw scores reflect
what the applicant wants you to know. Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the
client is attempting to hide.
More than just another alcohol or
drug test. In addition to alcohol and drugs, the RRI-II assesses
other important areas of inquiry. The RRI-II is specifically designed for
applicant assessment. It provides the information needed for comprehensive
applicant reinstatement screening.
Three ways to give the RRI-II.
The RRI-II can be administered in three different ways:
Paper-pencil test booklet format is the most popular testing
procedure. RRI-II English and Spanish test booklets and answer sheets
2. Tests can
be given directly on the computer screen. Some agencies dedicate
computers for RRI-II testing.
3. Human voice audio in English or
Spanish is available. This involves a headset. The applicant uses the
up-down arrow keys. As the client goes from question to answer with the
arrow keys, that question or answer is highlighted on the monitor and
concurrently read to the client. These three test administration modes are
discussed in the "RRI-II: Orientation and Training Manual." Each test
administration mode has advantages and some limitations. Behavior Data
Systems offers these
three test modes so test users can select the administration mode that is
optimally suited to their needs.
Reading Impaired Assessment:
Reading impaired applicants represent 20+ percent of the clients
tested. This represents a serious problem to other assessment tests.
Behavior Data Systems has developed an alternative for dealing with this problem: Human Voice Audio.
Human Voice Audio:
Presentation of the RRI-II is in English and Spanish. Applicants' passive
vocabularies are often greater than their active vocabularies. Hearing items
read out loud often helps reduce cultural and communication problems. This
administration mode requires earphones and simple instructions to orient the
client to the up-down arrow keys on the computer keyboard. Human Voice Audio
is an alternative approach for screening reading impaired applicants.
Confidentiality: Behavior Data
Systems encourages test users to delete applicant names from diskettes before they
are returned to Behavior Data Systems. Once applicant names are deleted, they are gone and
cannot be retrieved. Deleting applicant names does not delete demographics
or test data, which is downloaded into the RRI-II database for subsequent
analysis. This proprietary name deletion procedure involves a few keystrokes
and insures client confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal
regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).
Test Data Input Verification:
Allows the person that inputs test data from the answer sheet into the
computer to verify the accuracy of their data input. In brief, test data is
input twice, and any inconsistencies between the first and second data
entries are highlighted until corrected. When the first and second data
entries match or are the same, the staff person can continue. This
proprietary Data Input Verification procedure is optional, yet strongly
recommended by Behavior Data Systems.
Behavior Data Systems'
staff are available to participate in RRI-II training programs conducted by
statewide programs, departments and high volume agencies in the United
States. Sometimes, smaller volume providers get together for collective
(multiple providers) on-site training. Behavior Data Systems typically participates in 4-hour
or 6-hour RRI-II training sessions. This training can include hands-on
computer scoring, as desired. Behavior Data Systems gives attendees certificates attesting to
their RRI-II training.
Staff training is also provided on Fridays at Behavior Data Systems'
Phoenix offices from 8:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. or from 1:30 p.m. to 4:30
p.m. These training sessions are free. To participate, contact Behavior
Data Systems at least ten days in advance. Participation is on a first call, first scheduled basis.
Free Examination Kit:
A 1-test demonstration diskette is available on a 30-day cost free basis.
Demo diskettes are in Windows format. The Examination Kit includes a 1-test demo
diskette, installation CD (with instructions), test booklet, answer sheet and some
descriptive materials. Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. does want the test booklet and
diskette returned within 30 days.
An example RRI-II three-page report is included for
review. This example report is presented page by page. It should be noted
that all RRI-II reports are printed in the same format. However, within this
outline, each report is highly individualized.
Additional information can be provided upon request by writing:
Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. P.O. Box 44256 Phoenix, Arizona 85064-4256
Our telephone number is (602) 234-3506.
Our fax number is (602) 266-8227.
and our e-mail address is