Behavior Data Systems
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Reinstatement Review Inventory-II

The Reinstatement Review Inventory-II, or RRI-II, is a test designed to screen applicants applying for reinstatement of their drivers' licenses after it was suspended or revoked. The RRI-II consists of 128 items and takes 25 minutes to complete. It has six scales (measures): 1. Truthfulness Scale, 2. Alcohol Scale, 3. Drugs Scale, 4. Comparative Change Scale, 5. Intervention Checklist Scale and 6. Stress Coping Abilities Scale.

The RRI-II is different. The RRI-II explores the question "Has the applicant changed since their driver's license was suspended or revoked?"

Reinstatement Review Inventory-II
  • Screening applicants applying for reinstatement of their suspended or revoked driver's license.
  • Departmental screening, agency evaluators and community mental health professionals, applicant assessment for driver's license reinstatement.

Six RRI-II Scales (Measures)

  1. Truthfulness Scale: Measures how truthful the applicant was while completing the RRI-II. This scale identifies problem minimization, denial and attempts to fake good.
  2. Alcohol Scale: Measures the applicant's use and/or abuse of alcohol. The term alcohol refers to beer, wine or other liquor.
  3. Drugs Scale: Measures illicit drug use and abuse. Drugs refer to marijuana, cocaine, crack, amphetamines, barbiturates and heroin.
  4. Comparative Change Scale: Helps identify applicants who have experienced positive attitudinal and behavioral change since their drivers' licenses were suspended or revoked.
  5. Intervention Checklist Scale: Clarifies the applicant's status in terms of meeting requirements for reinstatement of their driver's license. Have they only completed minimum requirements? Or, have they demonstrated a sincere commitment to change?
  6. Stress Coping Abilities Scale: Measures how well the applicant handles stress, pressure and anxiety. We now know that stress exacerbates emotional and mental health problems.

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Why Have a Test for Driver's License Reinstatement?

Because the information needed to decide whether or not to reinstate a suspended or revoked driver's license is in many ways unique. Has the applicant changed since their driver's license was suspended or revoked? Does the applicant have an alcohol or drug problem? Does the applicant have emotional or attitudinal problems that could overwhelm their stress coping abilities? Has the applicant made a sincere commitment to positive responsible change? Questions asked before driver's license reinstatement go beyond just alcohol and drug use.

It is assumed that a state reviews an applicant's court and driving history prior to reinstating a revoked or suspended driver's license. It is also assumed that somebody interviews the applicant. Is this enough? Considering the serious responsibilities and potential consequences associated with driver's license reinstatement, many people don't think so. Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. (BDS) interviewed people working in driver's license reinstatement programs in three states, and not one person was satisfied with their reinstatement procedures. When asked what they were looking for, the overwhelming majority said, "Some indication that the applicant had positively changed since their driver's license was suspended or revoked." When asked how they made this determination, almost all just laughed or shrugged their shoulders.

Two RRI Versions (RRI and RRI-II)

The RRI-II is discussed on this webpage. For comparison, the Reinstatement Review Inventory (RRI) is briefly discussed. The RRI has 124 items and takes 25 minutes to complete. The RRI has six scales (measures): 1. Truthfulness Scale, 2. Road Rage Scale, 3. Alcohol Scale, 4. Drugs Scale, 5. Comparative Change Scale and 6. The Intervention Checklist. Interested parties should decide between the RRI (has a Road Rage Scale) and the RRI-II (replaced Road Rage Scale with the Stress Coping Abilities Scale). If you would like more information on the RRI, click on this RRI link.

How Should the RRI-II Be Used?

The RRI-II should be used in conjunction with a review of available driving records, an interview with the applicant and experienced staff judgment.

How Can You tell if The Applicant Was Truthful?

The RRI-II has a built-in Truthfulness Scale that identifies defensiveness, denial, problem minimization and attempts to fake good. It would be naïve to assume that all applicants answer questions truthfully. And, without a reliable, valid and accurate Truthfulness Scale, many staff are deceived.

Advantages of Screening

Screening or assessment instruments filter out individuals with problems that may require more assistance and help. This filtering system works as follows:

Risk Range
Low Risk 0 - 39% 39%
Medium Risk 40 - 69% 30%
Problem Risk 70 - 89% 20%
Severe Problem 90 -100% 11%

Reference to the above table shows that a problem is not identified until a scale score is at the 70th percentile or higher. These risk range percentiles are based upon applicants that have completed the RRI-II. This procedure is fair and avoids extremes, i.e., over-identification and under-identification of problems.

Using the above table, only applicants with severe problems (11% of applicants screened) might be referred for additional services. In this example, 89 percent (contingent upon adopted policy) of the applicants screened would not be referred for additional (and often unnecessary as well as expensive) services. Savings (dollars) could be large with no compromises in applicants being made aware of their problems and needs. Indeed, it is likely that more applicants would receive needed help. Without a screening program, there is usually more risk of over or under-utilization of additional services. And, nobody wants to reinstate a driver's license to an applicant who then has a DUI accident and kills somebody.

Test Booklets

RRI-II test booklets are provided free. These booklets contain 128 items and are written at a 5th to 6th grade reading level. If a person can read the newspaper, they can read the RRI-II.


In brief, RRI-II reports summarize the applicant's answers in a concise 3-page report. The RRI-II profile (graph) summarizes RRI-II findings at a glance. Each scale score is summarized in a paragraph that presents the applicant's score, explains what that score means and provides score-related recommendations. Significant items (admissions and unusual answers) are printed for staff review. In addition, applicant answers to the multiple choice (items 119 to 128) are printed for reference.

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Staff often wants quick reference of RRI-II results. To meet this need, test results are summarized at the top of the first page of the report. These summary statements are as follows:


INVALID TEST RESULTS. This summary statement means that RRI-II results are distorted due to defensiveness, denial, problem minimization or attempts to fake good.

MEETS REINSTATEMENT CRITERIA. This statement means RRI-II test results meet established reinstatement criteria. RRI-II results indicate it would be appropriate to reinstate the applicant's driver's license. However, we emphasize no reinstatement decision should be based solely on RRI-II results.

EXCEEDS REINSTATEMENT CRITERIA. This statement means RRI-II results reflect serious problems. This statement pertains only to RRI-II results.

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Link to RRI-II Example Report

An RRI-II example report is presented at the end of this webpage. If you want to go directly to this report, click on the Example Report link. You might check the top right of the first page of the example report to see how the RRI-II quick reference summary statements look.

How to Review RRI-II Reports

1. Check the RRI-II Summary Statement. These statements were described earlier. They are presented in the top right of the first page of the RRI-II report. For example, MEETS REINSTATEMENT CRITERIA is printed in a box in the example RRI-II report.

2. Review the RRI-II Profile. This RRI-II profile (graph) is on the first page of the RRI-II report. It summarizes scale scores at a glance. The RRI-II profile presents each RRI-II scale by name, obtained percentile score and graphical presentation of scores.

3. Scale Score Summary Paragraphs. Attained scale scores are presented and explained along with score-related recommendations. The paragraphs are contained on page 2 and the top of page 3 in the RRI-II report.

4. Significant Items. These are direct admissions or unusual answers to the Alcohol Scale and Drugs Scale. When no significant items apply, this is stated in the RRI-II report.

5. Multiple choice. The last sequence of items in the RRI-II (items 119 to 128) represent multiple choice items. Each of these multiple choice items has four answers to choose from, and the answers selected are printed in the RRI-II report.

6. Other sources of information. The RRI-II is to be used in conjunction with a review of the applicant's driving records, an interview and experienced staff judgment.

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Everybody seems to have their own approach to data gathering. The above suggestions are simply that -- suggestions. All Behavior Data Systems asks is that the empirically based information contained in RRI-II reports be considered in the overall decision making process.

Reliability and Validity

Early research used criterion measures, and the RRI-II was validated with other tests, e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) L and F-Scales, 16PF, Treatment Intervention Inventory, etc. Subsequently, database analysis based studies further support RRI-II reliability and validity. To review RRI-II research, click on the RRI-II Research Study link. Another research study link is presented at the end of this webpage.

The RRI-II has a proprietary built-in database that insures inclusion of all administered tests in a confidential (no names) manner. Annual database analysis further demonstrates that the RRI-II is a reliable and valid test.

The inter-item reliability (alpha) coefficients for the six RRI-II scales are presented below. There were 249 participants who completed the RRI-II. All scales were highly reliable. All of the alpha reliability coefficients for all RRI-II scales were at or above 0.85. These results demonstrate that the RRI-II is a reliable test.

RRI-II Scales Coefficient
Truthfulness Scale .89 p<.001
Alcohol Scale .86 p<.001
Drugs Scale .86 p<.001
Intervention Checklist .88 p<.001
Comparative Change .85 p<.001
Stress Coping Abilities Scale .89 p<.001

All RRI-II scales have alpha coefficients above the professionally accepted standard of .75 and are highly reliable. And, all coefficient alphas are significant at the p<.001 level.

Relationships between RRI and RRI-II scales

The RRI-II is a revised version of the RRI, but some of the scales remained the same or changed very little. These scales are: Alcohol, Drugs, Comparative Change and Intervention Checklist. For the RRI-II, the Truthfulness Scale was redone, the Road Rage Scale was dropped and the Stress Coping Abilities Scale was added. Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficients between RRI scale scores and RRI-II scale scores for the four similar scales are presented in the table below.


Scales Correlation Coefficient
Alcohol Scale r = .99
Drugs Scale r = .99
Comparative Change r = .97
Intervention Checklist r = .83

Two different samples of applicants were used in this correlation analysis, and each applicant took only the RRI or the RRI-II. To test the correlation between scale scores, the data for each scale was sorted in ascending order. This type of correlation was used because different respondents took different tests. But, because the scales and respondents were similar (applicants for reinstatement), the correlations are meaningful. There were 498 applicants included in this analysis (249 for each test). Such high correlation coefficients demonstrate that RRI and RRI-II scales essentially measure the same thing.


The RRI-II is available in Windows format. Windows diskettes require a one-time setup procedure after which RRI-II data diskettes (25 or 50 test applications) are used to score and print reports on-site. Training manuals are provided free, and new test users can be walked through these scoring and printing procedures over the telephone.

RRI-II data diskettes contain 25 or 50 test applications. These 3½" diskettes score, interpret and print reports on-site. Once an RRI-II account is established, ordered diskettes are mailed to users. Approximately 97% of orders are filled and mailed back to users the same day. When all test applications on a diskette are used, these diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems where demographics and test data are downloaded into the RRI-II database for subsequent database analysis and research.

The proprietary "delete names" program is activated by the test user with a few keystrokes to delete all applicants' names from the diskette before they are returned to Behavior Data Systems. Deleting all applicant names insures protection of each applicant's confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).


The RRI-II system contains a proprietary built-in database. Earlier, it was noted that all RRI-II used diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems, and the test data is downloaded into the expanding RRI-II database. This database allows ongoing research and testing program summary features that were not possible before. Ongoing research insures quality control. Annual testing program summaries provide program self-evaluation. And, both of these services are provided free.

No personal information, names, social security numbers, etc. are ever downloaded into any test database.

Built-in Database

The RRI-II permits ongoing research and annual program summary -- at no additional cost (meaning free). As discussed earlier, when the 25 or 50-test diskettes are used, these used diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems, checked for viruses and downloaded into the expanding RRI-II database. Advantages of this proprietary database are many and include database research analysis and annual testing program summary reports.

Returned diskettes can be summarized on a state, department or agency basis -- at no additional cost to test users. Annual summary reports provide information that permit testing program review.

In summary, all returned RRI-II diskettes are centrally filed at Behavior Data Systems' offices in the RRI-II database. This database has many advantages. Database analysis permits ongoing cost efficient research that includes scale alpha coefficients, ANOVA, frequency distributions, correlations, cross-tab statistics along with reliability, validity and accuracy determinations.

After downloading test data returned diskettes are destroyed.

Annual Summary Reports

Behavior Data Systems can access each of its tests' built-in databases for statistical analysis and summarization of all tests administered in a year. Annual Summary Reports are prepared for state, department, agency and even some individual providers -- at no cost to them. These reports are provided as a professional courtesy to large volume test users. Summary reports include demographics, court-history when relevant, and test statistics (reliability, validity and accuracy). Has anyone offered to summarize your testing program? Annually? At no additional cost to you? Minimum testing volume for annual reports is 350 tests. There is no maximum limit. Behavior Data Systems' annual reports range in size from 350 tests to over 55,000 tests annually. An Annual Summary Report can be viewed by clicking on this Annual Summary Report link.

Staff Member Input

The RRI-II is to be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment. When available, driving records should be reviewed. Experienced staff should also interview the applicant. For these reasons, the following statement is contained in each RRI-II report: "RRI-II results are confidential and should be considered working hypotheses. No diagnosis or decision should be based solely upon RRI-II results. The RRI-II is to be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment."

Selecting a Reinstatement Review Test

If you are selecting a reinstatement assessment instrument, the following Comparison Checklist should prove helpful. It lists important screening test qualities. The "Other" column represents any other test you might want to compare to the RRI-II.

Designed Specifically for Reinstatement Evaluation Yes  
Test Reliability and Validity Research Provided Yes  
Test Completed in 25 Minutes Yes  
On-Site Reports within 3 Minutes Yes  
Truthfulness Scale to Detect Faking Yes  
Truth-Corrected Scores for Accuracy Yes  
Three Test Administration Options Yes  
  1. Paper-Pencil (English and Spanish) Yes  
  2. On Computer Screen (English and Spanish) Yes  
  3. Human Voice Audio (English and Spanish) Yes  
Delete Client Names (insures confidentiality) Yes  
HIPAA (federal regulation) Compliant Yes  
Test Data Input Verification (insures accuracy) Yes  
Available in English and Spanish Yes  
Built-in Database at No Additional Cost Yes  
Alcohol and Drugs Scales Yes  
Stress Coping Abilities Scale Yes  
Intervention Checklist Scale Yes  
Comparative Change Scale Yes  
Annual Summary Report -- Free Yes  
Concise Summary Report Statement Yes  
Easily Understood Reports Yes  
Staff Training -- Free Yes  
Examination Kits -- Free Yes  
Very Affordable Test Unit Fee Yes  

In summary, the RRI-II is different. It does explore the question "Has the applicant changed since their driver's license was suspended or revoked?" Each RRI-II scale represents important areas of inquiry when deciding whether to reinstate a person's driver's license after it has been suspended or revoked. RRI-II reports summarize the applicant's self-reported information, explain what attained scale scores mean and provide score-related recommendations. Behavior Data Systems' staff is not aware of any other test that has been designed specifically for applicants applying for reinstatement of their suspended or revoked driver's license.

Unique Features

Truthfulness Scale: Identifies denial, problem minimization and faking. It is now known that most applicants attempt to minimize their problems. A Truthfulness Scale is a necessary component in contemporary tests. The RRI-II Truthfulness Scale has been demonstrated to be reliable, valid and accurate.

Truth-Corrected Scores: Have proven to be very important for assessment accuracy. This proprietary truth correction process is comparable to the MMPI K-Scale correction. The RRI-II Truthfulness Scale has been correlated with the other 5 scales. The Truth Correction equation converts raw scores to Truth-Corrected scores. Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw scores. Raw scores reflect what the applicant wants you to know. Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the client is attempting to hide.

More than just another alcohol or drug test. In addition to alcohol and drugs, the RRI-II assesses other important areas of inquiry. The RRI-II is specifically designed for applicant assessment. It provides the information needed for comprehensive applicant reinstatement screening.

Three ways to give the RRI-II. The RRI-II can be administered in three different ways: 1. Paper-pencil test booklet format is the most popular testing procedure. RRI-II English and Spanish test booklets and answer  sheets are available. 2. Tests can be given directly on the computer screen. Some agencies dedicate computers for RRI-II testing. And, 3. Human voice audio in English or Spanish is available. This involves a headset. The applicant uses the up-down arrow keys. As the client goes from question to answer with the arrow keys, that question or answer is highlighted on the monitor and concurrently read to the client. These three test administration modes are discussed in the "RRI-II: Orientation and Training Manual." Each test administration mode has advantages and some limitations. Behavior Data Systems offers these three test modes so test users can select the administration mode that is optimally suited to their needs.

Reading Impaired Assessment: Reading impaired applicants represent 20+ percent of the clients tested. This represents a serious problem to other assessment tests. Behavior Data Systems has developed an alternative for dealing with this problem: Human Voice Audio.

Human Voice Audio: Presentation of the RRI-II is in English and Spanish. Applicants' passive vocabularies are often greater than their active vocabularies. Hearing items read out loud often helps reduce cultural and communication problems. This administration mode requires earphones and simple instructions to orient the client to the up-down arrow keys on the computer keyboard. Human Voice Audio is an alternative approach for screening reading impaired applicants.

Confidentiality: Behavior Data Systems encourages test users to delete applicant names from diskettes before they are returned to Behavior Data Systems. Once applicant names are deleted, they are gone and cannot be retrieved. Deleting applicant names does not delete demographics or test data, which is downloaded into the RRI-II database for subsequent analysis. This proprietary name deletion procedure involves a few keystrokes and insures client confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).

Test Data Input Verification: Allows the person that inputs test data from the answer sheet into the computer to verify the accuracy of their data input. In brief, test data is input twice, and any inconsistencies between the first and second data entries are highlighted until corrected. When the first and second data entries match or are the same, the staff person can continue. This proprietary Data Input Verification procedure is optional, yet strongly recommended by Behavior Data Systems.

Staff Training: Behavior Data Systems' staff are available to participate in RRI-II training programs conducted by statewide programs, departments and high volume agencies in the United States. Sometimes, smaller volume providers get together for collective (multiple providers) on-site training. Behavior Data Systems typically participates in 4-hour or 6-hour RRI-II training sessions. This training can include hands-on computer scoring, as desired. Behavior Data Systems gives attendees certificates attesting to their RRI-II training.

Staff training is also provided on Fridays at Behavior Data Systems' Phoenix offices from 8:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. or from 1:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. These training sessions are free. To participate, contact Behavior Data Systems at least ten days in advance. Participation is on a first call, first scheduled basis.

Free Examination Kit: A 1-test demonstration diskette is available on a 30-day cost free basis. Demo diskettes are in Windows format. The Examination Kit includes a 1-test demo diskette, installation CD (with instructions), test booklet, answer sheet and some descriptive materials. Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. does want the test booklet and diskette returned within 30 days.

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An example RRI-II three-page report is included for review. This example report is presented page by page. It should be noted that all RRI-II reports are printed in the same format. However, within this outline, each report is highly individualized.

Additional information can be provided upon request by writing:
Behavior Data Systems, Ltd.
P.O. Box 44256
Phoenix, Arizona 85064-4256

Our telephone number is (602) 234-3506.
Our fax number is (602) 266-8227.
and our e-mail address is

Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. Copyright © 2007