Behavior Data Systems
Assessment Tests and Interviews Reliable Computer Graded Assessment


Reinstatement Review Inventory (RRI)

The Reinstatement Review Inventory (RRI) is a test designed to screen applicants applying for reinstatement of their drivers' licenses after they were suspended or revoked. The RRI consists of 124 items and takes 25 minutes to complete. It has six scales (measures): 1. Truthfulness Scale, 2. Alcohol Scale, 3. Drugs Scale, 4. Road Rage Scale, 5. Intervention Checklist Scale and 6. Comparative Change Scale.


The original RRI is described above. Another version is designated the Reinstatement Review Inventory-II, or RRI-II. The RRI-II differs from the RRI in terms of the scales (measures) it contains. RRI-II scales (measures) are: 1. Truthfulness Scale, 2. Alcohol Scale, 3. Drugs Scale, 4. Comparative Change,5. Intervention Checklist Scale and 6. Stress Coping Abilities Scale. The RRI-II replaced the Road Rage Scale with the Stress Coping Abilities Scale. Click on the RRI-II link to go to the RRI-II webpage. Otherwise, this is the RRI webpage.

* * Reinstatement Review Inventory (RRI) * *
Screening applicants applying for reinstatement of their suspended or revoked drivers' licenses.

Departmental screening of applicants, agency evaluators and community mental health professionals.

Six RRI Scales (Measures)

  1. Truthfulness Scale: Measures how truthful the applicant was while completing the RRI. This scale identifies problem minimization, denial and attempts to fake good.
  2. Alcohol Scale: Measures the applicants use and/or abuse of alcohol. The term alcohol refers to beer, wine or other liquor.
  3. Drugs Scale: Measures illicit drug use and abuse. Drugs refer to marijuana, cocaine, crack, amphetamines, barbiturates and heroin.
  4. Road Rage Scale: Refers to the probability of violent anger and when drivers speak or act with unabated anger or fury. Synonyms include violence, vehement anger or great wrath. During road rage, emotions interfere with judgment.
  5. Intervention Checklist Scale: Demonstrates whether the applicant met the minimum requirements for driver's license reinstatement or exceeded them. It shows if the applicant has gone beyond the minimum requirements and demonstrated a sincere commitment to change.
  6. Comparative Change Scale: Helps identify applicants who have experienced positive attitudinal and behavioral change since their drivers' licenses were suspended or revoked.

Why Have a Test for Driver's License Reinstatement?

Because these decisions can affect people's lives. The information needed to decide whether or not to reinstate a suspended or revoked driver's license is in many ways unique. An important question that needs to be answered is "Has the applicant changed since their driver's license was suspended or revoked?" Other questions include "Does the applicant have an alcohol or drug problem?" or "Does the applicant have significant emotional or mental health problems?" Another important question is "Has the applicant made a sincere commitment to positive and responsible change?" Questions asked prior to driver's license reinstatement go beyond just alcohol and drug use.

It is assumed that most states review an applicant's court and driving history prior to reinstating a revoked or suspended driver's license. It is also assumed that somebody interviews the applicant. Is this enough? Considering the serious responsibilities and consequences associated with driver's license reinstatement, many people do not think so. Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. (BDS) interviewed driver's license reinstatement staff, and not one person was satisfied with their state's reinstatement procedures. When asked what they were looking for, the overwhelming majority said, "Some indication that the applicant had positively changed since their license was revoked or suspended." When asked how they made that determination, most just shrugged their shoulders.

How Should the RRI Be Used?

The RRI should be used in conjunction with a review of available driving records, an interview with the applicant, experienced staff judgment and an empirically based assessment instrument or test, i.e., the RRI.

How Can You Tell if the Applicant Was Truthful?

The RRI has a built-in Truthfulness Scale that identifies denial, problem minimization and attempts to fake good. It would be naïve to assume that all applicants answer questions truthfully. And, without a reliable, valid and accurate Truthfulness Scale, many staff are misled.

At one sitting of approximately 25 minutes' duration, staff can obtain a lot of applicant information that can help their applicant's driver's license reinstatement decision. The objective and standardized test we are discussing is the Reinstatement Review Inventory, or RRI.

Advantages of Screening

Screening or assessment instruments filter out people with problems that may require more assistance and help. This filtering system works as follows:

Risk Range
Low Risk 0 - 39% 39%
Medium Risk 40 - 69% 30%
Problem Risk 70 - 89% 20%
Severe Problem 90 -100% 11%

Reference to the above table shows that a "problem" is not identified until a scale score is at the 70th percentile or higher. These risk range percentiles are based upon applicants that have completed the RRI. This procedure is fair and avoids extremes, i.e., over-identification and under-identification of problems.

Using the above table, only applicants with severe problems representing eleven percent (11%) of the applicants screened might be referred for additional professional services. In this example, 89% (contingent upon adopted policy) of the applicants screened would not be referred for additional (and often expensive) services. Savings (dollars) could be large with no compromises in applicants being made aware of their problems and needs. Indeed, it is likely that more applicants would receive needed help. Without a screening program, there is usually more risk of over or under-utilization of additional services. And, nobody wants to reinstate a driver's license to an applicant who then has a DUI accident and kills somebody.

Test Booklets

RRI test booklets are provided free. These booklets contain 124 items and are written at a 5th to 6th grade reading level. If a person can read the newspaper, they can read the RRI.


In brief, RRI reports summarize the applicant's answers in a concise 2-page report. The RRI profile (graph) summarizes RRI findings at a glance. Each scale score is summarized in a paragraph that presents the applicant's score, explains what that score means and provides score-related recommendations. Significant items (admissions and unusual answers) are printed for staff review. In addition, applicant answers to the "Multiple Choice" section (items 115 to 124) are printed for reference.

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Staff often want a quick reference of RRI results. To meet this need, test results are summarized at the top of the first page of the report. These summary statements are as follows:

Invalid Test Results. This statement means that RRI results are distorted due to defensiveness, denial, problem minimization or attempts to fake good.

Meets Reinstatement Criteria. This statement means RRI test results meet most established reinstatement criteria. RRI results indicate it would be appropriate to reinstate the applicant's driver's license. However, we emphasize no reinstatement decision should be based solely on RRI results.

Exceeds Reinstatement Criteria. This statement means RRI results reflect serious problems. This statement pertains only to RRI results.

These summary statements are explained and their scoring methodology is described in the "RRI: Orientation and Training Manual."

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RRI Example Report

An RRI example report is presented at the end of this webpage. If you want to go directly to this report, click on the Example  RRI  Report link.

How to Review RRI Reports

Prior to presenting a step-by-step review procedure, all RRI users are urged to read the "RRI: Orientation and Training Manual." Review procedure steps are summarized as follows:

1. Check the RRI Summary Statement. These statements were described earlier. They are presented in the top right corner of the first page of the RRI report. In the example report presented at the end of this webpage, Meets Reinstatement Criteria is presented in the box.

2. Review the RRI Profile. This RRI profile (graph) is presented on the first page of the RRI report. It summarizes scale scores at a glance. Each scale is presented by name, attained percentile score and graphical presentation of scores.

3. Scale Score Summary Paragraphs. Attained scale scores are presented and explained along with score-related recommendations. These paragraphs are contained on page 2 at the top.

4. Significant Items. These are direct admissions or unusual answers to the Alcohol Scale and Drugs Scale. When no significant items apply, this is stated in the report.

5. Multiple Choice. The last sequence of items in the RRI (items 115 to 124) represent multiple choice items. Each of these multiple choice items has four answers to choose from. The selected answers are printed in the RRI report.

6. Other Sources of Information. The RRI is to be used in conjunction with a review of the applicant's driving records, an interview and experienced staff judgment.

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Reliability and Validity

Early RRI research used criterion measures, and the RRI was validated with other tests, e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) L and F-Scales, 16 PF, Treatment Intervention Inventory, etc. Subsequently, database analysis based studies further support RRI reliability and validity. To review some RRI research, click on the RRI Research Study link. Another research study link is presented at the end of this webpage.

The RRI has a proprietary built-in database that insures inclusion of used RRI tests in a confidential (no names) manner. Annual database analysis further demonstrates that the RRI is a reliable and valid test. To review an example Annual Summary Report, click on the Annual Summary Report link.

The inter-item reliability (alpha) coefficients for the six RRI scales are presented below. There are 757 participants who completed the RRI. All scales were highly reliable. All of the alpha reliability coefficients for all RRI scales are at or above 0.85. These results demonstrate that the RRI is a reliable test.

RRI Scales Coefficient
Truthfulness Scale .89 p<.001
Alcohol Scale .91 p<.001
Drugs Scale .91 p<.001
Road Rage Scale .85 p<.001
Intervention Checklist Scale .90 p<.001
Comparison Change Scale .95 p<.001


All RRI scales have alpha coefficients above the professionally accepted standard of .75 and are highly reliable. And, all coefficient alphas are significant at the p<.001 level. These are very impressive statistics.

Relationships between RRI and RRI-II scales

The RRI-II is a revised version of the RRI, but some of the scales remained the same or changed very little. These scales are: Alcohol, Drugs, Comparative Change and Intervention Checklist. For the RRI-II, the Truthfulness Scale was redone, the Road Rage Scale was dropped and the Stress Coping Abilities Scale was added. Pearson Product-Moment correlation coefficients between RRI scale scores and RRI-II scale scores for the four similar scales are presented in the table below.

Scales Correlation Coefficient
Alcohol Scale r = .99
Drugs Scale r = .99
Comparative Change r = .97
Intervention Checklist r = .83

Two different samples of applicants were used in this correlation analysis, and each applicant took only the RRI or the RRI-II. To test the correlation between scale scores, the data for each scale was sorted in ascending order. This type of correlation was used because different respondents took different tests. But, because the scales and respondents were similar (applicants for reinstatement), the correlations are meaningful. There were 498 applicants included in this analysis (249 for each test). Such high correlation coefficients demonstrate that RRI and RRI-II scales are reliable and valid.


The RRI is available in Windows format. Windows diskettes require a one-time setup procedure after which RRI data diskettes (25 or 50 test applications) are used to score and print reports on-site. Training manuals are provided free, and new test users can be walked through these scoring and printing procedures over the telephone.

RRI data diskettes contain 25 or 50 test applications. The 3½" diskettes score, interpret and print reports on-site. Once an RRI account is established ordered diskettes are mailed to users. Approximately 97% of orders are filled and mailed back to users the same day. When all test applications on a diskette are used, the used diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems where demographics and test data are downloaded into the RRI database for subsequent database analysis and research.

The proprietary "delete names" program is activated by the test user with a few keystrokes to delete all applicants' names from the diskette before they are returned to Behavior Data Systems. Deleting all applicant names insures protection of each applicant's confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).


The RRI system contains a proprietary built-in database. Earlier, it was noted that all RRI used diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems, and the test data is downloaded into the expanding RRI database. This database allows ongoing research and testing program summary features that were not possible before. Ongoing research insures quality control. Annual testing program summaries provide for program self-evaluation. And, both of these services are provided free.

No personal information, names, social security numbers, etc. are ever downloaded into any test database.

Built-in Database

The RRI permits ongoing research and annual program summary -- at no additional cost. As described earlier, when the 25 or 50-test diskettes are used, the used diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems and downloaded into the expanding RRI database. Advantages of this proprietary database are many and include database research analysis and annual testing program summary reports.

Returned diskettes can be summarized on a state, department or agency basis -- at no additional cost to users. Annual summary reports provide information that permits testing program review. To review an example annual summary report, click on this Annual Summary Report link.

In summary, all returned RRI diskettes are centrally filed at Behavior Data Systems' offices in the RRI database. This database has many advantages. Database analysis permits ongoing cost efficient research that includes scale alpha coefficients, ANOVA, frequency distributions, correlations, cross-tab statistics along with reliability, validity and accuracy determinants. To review an RRI research study, click on the RRI Research Study link.

After downloading test data, returned diskettes are destroyed.

Annual Summary Reports

Behavior Data Systems can access each of its tests' built-in databases for statistical analysis and summarization of all tests administered in a year. Annual Summary Reports are prepared for state, department, agency and even some individual providers -- at no cost to them. These reports are provided as a professional courtesy to large volume test users. Summary reports include demographics, court-history when relevant, and test statistics (reliability, validity and accuracy). Has anyone offered to summarize your testing program? Annually? At no additional cost to you? Minimum testing volume for annual reports is 350 tests. There is no maximum limit. Behavior Data Systems' annual reports range in size from 350 tests to over 55,000 tests annually. An example Annual Summary Report can be viewed by clicking on this Annual Summary Report link.

Staff Member Input

The RRI is to be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment. When available, driving records should be reviewed. Experienced staff should also interview the applicant. For these reasons, the following statement is contained in each RRI report: "RRI results are confidential and should be considered working hypotheses. No diagnosis or decision should be based solely upon RRI results. The RRI is to be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment."

Unique Features

Truthfulness Scale: Identifies denial, problem minimization and faking. It is now known that most applicants attempt to minimize their problems. A Truthfulness Scale is a necessary component in contemporary tests. The RRI Truthfulness Scale has been demonstrated to be reliable, valid and accurate.

Truth-Corrected Scores: Have proven to be very important for assessment accuracy. This proprietary truth correction process is comparable to the MMPI K-Scale correction. The RRI Truthfulness Scale has been correlated with the other 5 scales. The Truth Correction equation converts raw scores to Truth-Corrected scores. Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw scores. Raw scores reflect what the applicant wants you to know. Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the client is attempting to hide.

More than just another alcohol or drug test. In addition to alcohol and drugs, the RRI assesses other important areas of inquiry. The RRI is specifically designed for applicant assessment. It provides the information needed for comprehensive applicant reinstatement screening.

Three ways to give the RRI. The RRI can be administered in three different ways: 1. Paper-pencil test booklet format is the most popular testing procedure. RRI English and Spanish test booklets and answer sheets are available. 2. Tests can be given directly on the computer screen. Some agencies dedicate computers for RRI testing. And, 3. Human Voice Audio in English or Spanish is available. This involves a headset. The applicant uses the up-down arrow keys. As the client goes from question to answer with the arrow keys, that question or answer is highlighted on the monitor and concurrently read to the client. These three test administration modes are discussed in the "RRI: Orientation and Training Manual." Each test administration mode has advantages and some limitations. Behavior Data Systems offers these three test modes so test users can select the administration mode that is optimally suited to their needs.

Reading Impaired Assessment: Reading impaired applicants represent 20+ percent of the clients tested. This represents a serious problem to other assessment tests. Behavior Data Systems has developed an alternative for dealing with this problem: Human Voice Audio.

Human Voice Audio: Presentation of the RRI is in English and Spanish. Applicants' passive vocabularies are often greater than their active vocabularies. Hearing items read out loud often helps reduce cultural and communication problems. This administration mode requires earphones and simple instructions to orient the client to the up-down arrow keys on the computer keyboard. Human Voice Audio is an alternative approach for screening reading impaired applicants.

Confidentiality: Behavior Data Systems encourages test users to delete applicant names from diskettes before they are returned to Behavior Data Systems. Once applicant names are deleted, they are gone and cannot be retrieved. Deleting applicant names does not delete demographics or test data, which is downloaded into the RRI database for subsequent analysis. This proprietary name deletion procedure involves a few keystrokes and insures client confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).

Test Data Input Verification: Allows the person that inputs test data from the answer sheet into the computer to verify the accuracy of their data input. In brief, test data is input twice, and any inconsistencies between the first and second data entries are highlighted until corrected. When the first and second data entries match or are the same, the staff person can continue. This proprietary Data Input Verification procedure is optional, yet strongly recommended by Behavior Data Systems.

Staff Training: Behavior Data Systems' staff are available to participate in RRI training programs conducted by statewide programs, departments and high volume agencies in the United States. Sometimes, smaller volume providers get together for collective (multiple providers) on-site training. Behavior Data Systems typically participates in 4-hour or 6-hour RRI training sessions. This training can include hands-on computer scoring, as desired. Behavior Data Systems gives attendees certificates attesting to their RRI training.

Staff training is also provided on Fridays at Behavior Data Systems' Phoenix offices from 8:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. or from 1:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. These training sessions are free. To participate, contact Behavior Data Systems at least ten days in advance. Participation is on a first call, first scheduled basis.

Test Unit Fee (Cost): RRI cost information can be reviewed by clicking on the Test Unit Fee (Cost) link. There is only the one cost or charge, and that is the test unit fee. Everything else is included at no additional cost to the test user. This includes test booklets, answer sheets, training manuals, upgrades, ongoing database research, annual summary testing reports, staff training, and support services. Do not be misled by some test publishers' å la carte pricing like separate costs for each test administration as well as for each of the test-related items listed above. Instead of asking for the test administration cost, ask for the total cost involved in using a test. We believe Behavior Data Systems' one test unit fee is very affordable.

Free Examination Kit: A 1-test demonstration diskette is available on a 30-day cost free basis. Demo diskettes are in Windows format. The Examination Kit includes a 1-test demo diskette, installation CD (with instructions), test booklet, answer sheet and some descriptive materials. Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. does want the test booklet and diskette returned within 30 days.

Selecting a Reinstatement Assessment Test

If you are selecting a reinstatement assessment instrument, the following Comparison Checklist should prove helpful. It lists important screening test qualities. The "Other" column represents any other test you might want to compare to the RRI.

Designed Specifically for Reinstatement Evaluation Yes  
Test Reliability and Validity Research Provided Yes  
Test Completed in 25 Minutes Yes  
On-Site Reports within 3 Minutes Yes  
Truthfulness Scale to Detect Faking Yes  
Truth-Corrected Scores for Accuracy Yes  
Three Test Administration Options Yes  
  1. Paper-Pencil (English and Spanish) Yes  
  2. On Computer Screen (English and Spanish) Yes  
  3. Human Voice Audio (English and Spanish) Yes  
Delete Client Names (insures confidentiality) Yes  
HIPAA (federal regulation) Compliant Yes  
Test Data Input Verification (insures accuracy) Yes  
Available in English and Spanish Yes  
Built-in Database at No Additional Cost Yes  
Alcohol and Drugs Scales Yes  
Road Rage Scale Yes  
Intervention Checklist Scale Yes  
Comparative Change Scale Yes  
Annual Summary Reports (Free) Yes  
Easily Understood Reports Yes  
Staff Training (Free) Yes  
Examination Kits (Free) Yes  
Very Affordable Test Unit Fee Yes  

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The two-page Reinstatement Review Inventory (RRI) report helps staff decide if a persons suspended or revoked driver's license should be reinstated. The RRI is an automated (computer-scored) 124-item assessment instrument or test that takes 25 to 30 minutes to complete. The six RRI scales (measures) are: 1. Truthfulness Scale, 2. Alcohol Scale, 3. Drugs Scale, 4. Road Rage Scale, 5. Comparative Change Scale and 6. Intervention Checklist Scale.

The Reinstatement Review Inventory is designed for screening applicants applying for reinstatement of their driver's license after it was suspended or revoked.  With regard to the RRI example report, page one summarizes the applicants RRI scores.  And the summary paragraphs explain the applicant's attained scores.  The second page of the RRI report presents significant (direct admissions) items, sets forth the multiple choice (items 115 to 124), and gives the applicants answer to each Comparative Change (items 75 to 114) item.  Comparative Change answers help determine whether-or-not the applicant has positively changed since his or her driver's license was suspended or revoked.

Additional information can be provided upon request by writing:
Behavior Data Systems, Ltd.
P.O. Box 44256
Phoenix, Arizona 85064-4256

Our telephone number is (602) 234-3506.
Our fax number is (602) 266-8227.
and our e-mail address is

Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. Copyright © 2007