The Reinstatement Review Inventory (RRI)
is a test designed to screen applicants applying for reinstatement of
their drivers' licenses after they were suspended or revoked. The RRI consists
of 124 items and takes 25 minutes to complete. It has six scales
Alcohol Scale, 3. Drugs Scale,
4. Road Rage Scale,
5. Intervention Checklist
Comparative Change Scale.
TWO VERSIONS OF THE REINSTATEMENT REVIEW INVENTORY (RRI)
The original RRI is described above.
Another version is designated the Reinstatement Review Inventory-II, or RRI-II.
The RRI-II differs from the RRI in terms of the scales (measures) it
contains. RRI-II scales (measures) are:
2. Alcohol Scale,
3. Drugs Scale,
4. Comparative Change,5. Intervention Checklist
Scale and 6. Stress Coping Abilities Scale. The RRI-II replaced the Road
Rage Scale with the Stress Coping Abilities Scale. Click on the
to go to the RRI-II webpage. Otherwise, this is the RRI webpage.
* * Reinstatement Review Inventory (RRI) * *
Screening applicants applying for reinstatement of their suspended or revoked drivers' licenses.
Departmental screening of applicants, agency evaluators and community mental health professionals.
Six RRI Scales (Measures)
Measures how truthful the applicant was while completing the RRI. This
scale identifies problem minimization, denial and attempts to fake good.
Measures the applicants use and/or abuse of alcohol. The term alcohol
refers to beer, wine or other liquor.
Drugs Scale: Measures
illicit drug use and abuse. Drugs refer to marijuana, cocaine, crack,
amphetamines, barbiturates and heroin.
Road Rage Scale:
Refers to the probability of violent anger and when drivers speak or act with
unabated anger or fury. Synonyms include violence, vehement anger or great
wrath. During road rage, emotions interfere with judgment.
Intervention Checklist Scale:
Demonstrates whether the applicant met the minimum requirements for
driver's license reinstatement or exceeded them. It shows if the applicant
has gone beyond the minimum requirements and demonstrated a sincere
commitment to change.
Comparative Change Scale:
Helps identify applicants who have experienced positive attitudinal and
behavioral change since their drivers' licenses were suspended or revoked.
Why Have a Test for Driver's License Reinstatement?
Because these decisions can affect
people's lives. The information needed to decide whether or not to reinstate
a suspended or revoked driver's license is in many ways unique. An important
question that needs to be answered is "Has the applicant changed since their
driver's license was suspended or revoked?" Other questions include "Does
the applicant have an alcohol or drug problem?" or "Does the applicant have
significant emotional or mental health problems?" Another important question
is "Has the applicant made a sincere commitment to positive and responsible
change?" Questions asked prior to driver's license reinstatement go beyond
just alcohol and drug use.
It is assumed that most states
review an applicant's court and driving history prior to reinstating a
revoked or suspended driver's license. It is also assumed that somebody
interviews the applicant. Is this enough? Considering the serious
responsibilities and consequences associated with driver's license
reinstatement, many people do not think so. Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. (BDS) interviewed driver's license reinstatement staff, and not one person was
satisfied with their state's reinstatement procedures. When asked what they
were looking for, the overwhelming majority said, "Some indication that
the applicant had positively changed since their license was revoked or
suspended." When asked how they made that determination, most just
shrugged their shoulders.
How Should the RRI Be Used?
The RRI should be used in conjunction with a review of available driving records, an interview with
the applicant, experienced staff judgment and an empirically based assessment instrument or
test, i.e., the RRI.
How Can You Tell if the Applicant Was Truthful?
The RRI has a built-in Truthfulness Scale that identifies denial, problem minimization and attempts
to fake good. It would be naïve to assume that all applicants answer questions
truthfully. And, without a reliable, valid and accurate Truthfulness Scale, many staff are misled.
At one sitting of approximately 25 minutes' duration, staff can obtain a lot of applicant
information that can help their applicant's driver's license reinstatement decision. The
objective and standardized test we are discussing is the Reinstatement Review Inventory, or RRI.
Advantages of Screening
Screening or assessment instruments filter out people with problems that may require more
assistance and help. This filtering system works as follows:
RRI RISK RANGES
Risk Range Percentile
0 - 39%
40 - 69%
70 - 89%
Reference to the above table shows
that a "problem" is not identified until a scale score is at the 70th
percentile or higher. These risk range percentiles are based upon
applicants that have completed the RRI. This procedure is fair and avoids
extremes, i.e., over-identification and under-identification of problems.
Using the above table, only
applicants with severe problems representing eleven percent (11%) of the
applicants screened might be referred for additional professional
services. In this example, 89% (contingent upon adopted policy) of the
applicants screened would not be referred for additional (and often
expensive) services. Savings (dollars) could be large with no compromises
in applicants being made aware of their problems and needs. Indeed, it is
likely that more applicants would receive needed help. Without a screening
program, there is usually more risk of over or under-utilization of
additional services. And, nobody wants to reinstate a driver's license to
an applicant who then has a DUI accident and kills somebody.
RRI test booklets are provided free.
These booklets contain 124 items and are written at a 5th to 6th
grade reading level. If a person can read the newspaper, they can read the RRI.
In brief, RRI reports summarize the applicant's answers in a concise 2-page report. The RRI profile
(graph) summarizes RRI findings at a glance. Each scale score is summarized in a
paragraph that presents the applicant's score, explains what that score
means and provides score-related recommendations. Significant items
(admissions and unusual answers) are printed for staff review. In addition,
applicant answers to the "Multiple Choice" section (items 115 to 124) are
printed for reference.
Staff often want a quick reference of RRI results. To meet this need, test results are summarized
at the top of the first page of the report. These summary statements are as follows:
Invalid Test Results. This statement
means that RRI results are distorted due to defensiveness, denial, problem
minimization or attempts to fake good.
Meets Reinstatement Criteria. This
statement means RRI test results meet most established reinstatement
criteria. RRI results indicate it would be appropriate to reinstate the
applicant's driver's license. However, we emphasize no reinstatement
decision should be based solely on RRI results.
Exceeds Reinstatement Criteria.
This statement means RRI results reflect
serious problems. This statement pertains only to RRI results.
These summary statements are explained and their scoring methodology is described in the "RRI:
Orientation and Training Manual."
An RRI example report is presented at the end of this webpage. If you want to go directly to this
report, click on the
Example RRI Report link.
How to Review RRI Reports
Prior to presenting a step-by-step
review procedure, all RRI users are urged to read the "RRI: Orientation and
Training Manual." Review procedure steps are summarized as follows:
1. Check the RRI Summary Statement. These statements were described
earlier. They are presented in the top right corner of the first page of the RRI report. In the
example report presented at the end of this webpage, Meets Reinstatement Criteria is presented in the
2. Review the RRI Profile. This RRI profile (graph) is presented on the
first page of the RRI report. It summarizes scale scores at a glance. Each scale is presented by
name, attained percentile score and graphical presentation of scores.
3. Scale Score Summary Paragraphs. Attained scale scores are presented
and explained along with score-related recommendations. These paragraphs are contained on page 2 at
Significant Items. These are direct admissions or unusual answers to
the Alcohol Scale and Drugs Scale. When no significant items apply, this is stated in the report.
5. Multiple Choice. The last sequence of items in the RRI (items 115
to 124) represent multiple choice items. Each of these multiple choice items has four answers to
choose from. The selected answers are printed in the RRI report.
6. Other Sources of Information.
The RRI is to be used in conjunction
with a review of the applicant's driving records, an interview and experienced staff judgment.
* * * * *
Reliability and Validity
Early RRI research used criterion
measures, and the RRI was validated with other tests, e.g., Minnesota
Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) L and F-Scales, 16 PF, Treatment
Intervention Inventory, etc. Subsequently, database analysis based studies
further support RRI reliability and validity. To review some RRI research,
click on the
RRI Research Study link.
Another research study link is presented at the end of this webpage.
The RRI has a proprietary built-in
database that insures inclusion of used RRI tests in a confidential (no
names) manner. Annual database analysis further demonstrates that the RRI
is a reliable and valid test. To review an example Annual Summary Report,
click on the
Annual Summary Report link.
The inter-item reliability (alpha)
coefficients for the six RRI scales are presented below. There are 757
participants who completed the RRI. All scales were highly reliable. All
of the alpha reliability coefficients for all RRI scales are at or above
0.85. These results demonstrate that the RRI is a reliable test.
RELIABILITY OF THE RRI, N=757, 2002
Road Rage Scale
Intervention Checklist Scale
Comparison Change Scale
All RRI scales have alpha coefficients above the professionally accepted standard of .75 and are
highly reliable. And, all coefficient alphas are significant at the p<.001 level. These are
very impressive statistics.
Relationships between RRI and RRI-II scales
The RRI-II is a revised version of the RRI, but some of the scales
remained the same or changed very little. These scales are: Alcohol, Drugs,
Comparative Change and Intervention Checklist. For the RRI-II, the
Truthfulness Scale was redone, the Road Rage Scale was dropped and the
Stress Coping Abilities Scale was added. Pearson Product-Moment correlation
coefficients between RRI scale scores and RRI-II scale scores for the four
similar scales are presented in the table below.
r = .99
r = .99
r = .97
r = .83
Two different samples of applicants were used in this correlation
analysis, and each applicant took only the RRI or the RRI-II. To test the
correlation between scale scores, the data for each scale was sorted in
ascending order. This type of correlation was used because different
respondents took different tests. But, because the scales and respondents
were similar (applicants for reinstatement), the correlations are
meaningful. There were 498 applicants included in this analysis (249
for each test). Such high correlation coefficients demonstrate that RRI and
RRI-II scales are reliable and valid.
The RRI is available in Windows format. Windows
diskettes require a one-time setup procedure after which RRI data diskettes
(25 or 50 test applications) are used to score and print reports on-site.
Training manuals are provided free, and new test users can be walked through
these scoring and printing procedures over the telephone.
RRI data diskettes contain 25 or 50
test applications. The 3½" diskettes score, interpret and print
reports on-site. Once an RRI account is established ordered diskettes are
mailed to users. Approximately 97% of orders are filled and mailed back to
users the same day. When all test applications on a diskette are used, the
used diskettes are returned to Behavior Data Systems where
demographics and test data are downloaded into the RRI database for
subsequent database analysis and research.
The proprietary "delete names"
program is activated by the test user with a few keystrokes to delete all
applicants' names from the diskette before they are returned to Behavior
Data Systems. Deleting all applicant names insures protection of each applicant's confidentiality
and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).
The RRI system contains a proprietary
built-in database. Earlier, it was noted that all RRI used diskettes are
returned to Behavior Data Systems, and the test data is downloaded into the expanding RRI
database. This database allows ongoing research and testing program summary
features that were not possible before. Ongoing research insures quality
control. Annual testing program summaries provide for program
self-evaluation. And, both of these services are provided free.
No personal information, names, social security numbers, etc. are ever downloaded into any test database.
The RRI permits ongoing research and
annual program summary -- at no additional cost. As described earlier, when
the 25 or 50-test diskettes are used, the used diskettes are returned to
Behavior Data Systems and downloaded into the expanding RRI database. Advantages of this
proprietary database are many and include database research analysis and
annual testing program summary reports.
Returned diskettes can be summarized
on a state, department or agency basis -- at no additional cost to users.
Annual summary reports provide information that permits testing program
review. To review an example annual summary report, click on this
Annual Summary Report link.
In summary, all returned RRI
diskettes are centrally filed at Behavior Data Systems' offices in the RRI database. This
database has many advantages. Database analysis permits ongoing cost
efficient research that includes scale alpha coefficients, ANOVA,
frequency distributions, correlations, cross-tab statistics along with
reliability, validity and accuracy determinants. To review an RRI research
study, click on the
RRI Research Study link.
After downloading test data, returned diskettes are destroyed.
Annual Summary Reports
Behavior Data Systems can access each of its
tests' built-in databases for statistical analysis and summarization of all
tests administered in a year. Annual Summary Reports are prepared
for state, department, agency and even some individual providers -- at no
cost to them. These reports are provided as a professional courtesy
to large volume test users. Summary reports include demographics,
court-history when relevant, and test statistics (reliability, validity
and accuracy). Has anyone offered to summarize your testing program?
Annually? At no additional cost to you? Minimum testing volume for
annual reports is 350 tests. There is no maximum limit. Behavior Data
Systems' annual reports range in size from 350 tests to over 55,000 tests annually.
An example Annual Summary Report can be viewed by clicking on this
Annual Summary Report link.
Staff Member Input
The RRI is to be used in conjunction
with experienced staff judgment. When available, driving records should be
reviewed. Experienced staff should also interview the applicant. For these
reasons, the following statement is contained in each RRI report: "RRI
results are confidential and should be considered working hypotheses. No
diagnosis or decision should be based solely upon RRI results. The RRI is to
be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment."
Truthfulness Scale:Identifies denial,
problem minimization and faking. It is now known that most applicants
attempt to minimize their problems. A Truthfulness Scale is a necessary
component in contemporary tests. The RRI Truthfulness Scale has been
demonstrated to be reliable, valid and accurate.
Truth-Corrected Scores: Have proven to be very important for
assessment accuracy. This proprietary truth correction process is
comparable to the MMPI K-Scale correction. The RRI Truthfulness Scale has
been correlated with the other 5 scales. The Truth Correction equation
converts raw scores to Truth-Corrected scores. Truth-Corrected scores are
more accurate than raw scores. Raw scores reflect what the applicant wants
you to know. Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the client is attempting to hide.
More than just another alcohol or
drug test. In addition to alcohol and drugs, the RRI assesses other
important areas of inquiry. The RRI is specifically designed for applicant
assessment. It provides the information needed for comprehensive
applicant reinstatement screening.
Three ways to
give the RRI. The RRI can be administered in three different ways:
1. Paper-pencil test booklet format is the most popular testing procedure.
RRI English and Spanish test booklets and answer sheets are available.
2. Tests can be given directly on the computer screen. Some agencies
dedicate computers for RRI testing. And,
3. Human Voice
Audio in English or Spanish is available. This involves a headset. The applicant uses the up-down
arrow keys. As the client goes from question to answer with the arrow
keys, that question or answer is highlighted on the monitor and
concurrently read to the client. These three test administration modes are
discussed in the "RRI: Orientation and Training Manual." Each test
administration mode has advantages and some limitations. Behavior Data
Systems offers these
three test modes so test users can select the administration mode that is
optimally suited to their needs.
Impaired Assessment: Reading impaired applicants represent 20+
percent of the clients tested. This represents a serious problem to other
assessment tests. Behavior Data Systems has developed an alternative for dealing with this
problem: Human Voice Audio.
Audio: Presentation of the RRI is in English and Spanish.
Applicants' passive vocabularies are often greater than their active
vocabularies. Hearing items read out loud often helps reduce cultural and
communication problems. This administration mode requires earphones and
simple instructions to orient the client to the up-down arrow keys on the
computer keyboard. Human Voice Audio is an alternative approach for
screening reading impaired applicants.
Behavior Data Systems encourages test users to delete applicant names from diskettes before
they are returned to Behavior Data Systems. Once applicant names are deleted, they are gone
and cannot be retrieved. Deleting applicant names does not delete
demographics or test data, which is downloaded into the RRI database for
subsequent analysis. This proprietary name deletion procedure involves a few
keystrokes and insures client confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA
(federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).
Test Data Input Verification: Allows the person that inputs test data
from the answer sheet into the computer to verify the accuracy of their data
input. In brief, test data is input twice, and any inconsistencies between
the first and second data entries are highlighted until corrected. When
the first and second data entries match or are the same, the staff person
can continue. This proprietary Data Input Verification procedure is
optional, yet strongly recommended by Behavior Data Systems.
Behavior Data Systems' staff are available to participate in RRI training programs conducted
by statewide programs, departments and high volume agencies in the United
States. Sometimes, smaller volume providers get together for collective
(multiple providers) on-site training. Behavior Data Systems typically participates in 4-hour
or 6-hour RRI training sessions. This training can include hands-on computer
scoring, as desired. Behavior Data Systems gives attendees certificates attesting to their RRI training.
Staff training is also provided on Fridays at Behavior Data Systems' Phoenix offices from 8:30 a.m. to
11:30 a.m. or from 1:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. These training sessions are free. To participate, contact
Behavior Data Systems at least ten days in advance. Participation is on a first call, first scheduled basis.
Test Unit Fee (Cost):
RRI cost information can be reviewed by clicking on the
Test Unit Fee
(Cost) link. There is only the one cost or charge, and that is the test unit
fee. Everything else is included at no additional cost to the test user. This
includes test booklets, answer sheets, training manuals, upgrades, ongoing
database research, annual summary testing reports, staff training, and support
services. Do not be misled by some test publishers' å la carte pricing like
separate costs for each test administration as well as for each of the
test-related items listed above. Instead of asking for the test administration
cost, ask for the total cost involved in using a test. We believe Behavior Data
Systems' one test
unit fee is very affordable.
Free Examination Kit:
A 1-test demonstration diskette is available on a 30-day cost free basis.
Demo diskettes are in Windows format. The Examination Kit includes a 1-test demo
diskette, installation CD (with instructions), test booklet, answer sheet and some
descriptive materials. Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. does want the test booklet and
diskette returned within 30 days.
Selecting a Reinstatement Assessment Test
If you are selecting a reinstatement assessment
instrument, the following Comparison Checklist should prove helpful. It
lists important screening test qualities. The "Other" column represents any
other test you might want to compare to the RRI.
TEST COMPARISON CHECKLIST
Designed Specifically for Reinstatement Evaluation
The two-page Reinstatement Review
Inventory (RRI) report helps staff decide if a persons suspended or
revoked driver's license should be reinstated. The RRI is an
automated (computer-scored) 124-item assessment instrument or test that
takes 25 to 30 minutes to complete. The six RRI scales (measures)
are: 1. Truthfulness Scale,
Drugs Scale, 4.
Road Rage Scale,
5. Comparative Change Scale and
Intervention Checklist Scale.
The Reinstatement Review Inventory is designed for screening applicants
applying for reinstatement of their driver's license after it was suspended or
revoked. With regard to the RRI example report, page one summarizes the
applicants RRI scores. And the summary paragraphs explain the applicant's
attained scores. The second page of the RRI report presents significant
(direct admissions) items, sets forth the multiple choice (items 115 to
124), and gives the applicants answer to each Comparative Change (items 75 to
114) item. Comparative Change answers help determine whether-or-not the
applicant has positively changed since his or her driver's license was suspended
Additional information can be provided upon request by writing:
Behavior Data Systems, Ltd. P.O. Box 44256 Phoenix, Arizona 85064-4256
Our telephone number is (602) 234-3506.
Our fax number is (602) 266-8227.
and our e-mail address is